Abstract

We have experimentally demonstrated a cation and anion sensor by using short linear photonic crystal microcavities with an embedded quantum dot active region. The photonic crystal microcavity covered with an ion-selective polymer forms a submicrometer optical detection system sensitive to small changes of perchlorate anion (ClO4) and calcium cation (Ca2+) concentrations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. G. Somekh, J. Microsc. 206, 120 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirakarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, Opt. Lett. 29, 1093 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

2005 (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. G. Somekh, J. Microsc. 206, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anslyn, E. V.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asher, S. A.

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, E.

S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buhlmann, P.

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

Curey, T.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druckmann, S.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girolami, G.

Goodey, A.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grot, A.

Harrison, D. J.

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holy, P.

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, A.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavigne, J. J.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Linial, M.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDevitt, J. T.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirakarimi, L. W.

Neikirk, D. P.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottolenghi, M.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peleg, G.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peper, S.

S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrovic, S.

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pretsch, E.

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M. D.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosatzin, T.

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rusterholz, B.

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sabarinathan, J.

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savoy, S. M.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, K.

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shalom, S.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shear, J. B.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M.

Simmons, G.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, W.

K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, Y.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somekh, M. G.

M. G. Somekh, J. Microsc. 206, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, B. S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strinkovski, A.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Topol’ancik, J.

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, A.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, J.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.-J.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P. C.

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) (1)

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. G. Somekh, J. Microsc. 206, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Nature (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Update (1)

S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic representation of an L4 photonic crystal microcavity in the GaAs heterostructure. The Al 0.8 Ga 0.2 As layer is wet oxidized to produce the bottom clad layer with n = 1.61 in the microcavity devices. (b) Photonic band structure evaluated by a three-dimensional plane-wave expansion simulation of the microcavity with holes at the edges shifted by 0.1 a . Band structure was calculated for a lattice constant a = 0.35 μ m , d a = 0.6 , and r a = 0.27 . (c) Room temperature micro-PL spectrum of a free-standing GaAs-based PC slab in air. Inset, scanning electron micrograph of a fabricated L4 PC microcavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shift in resonance wavelength of a PC microcavity with increasing (a) Cl O 4 concentration and (b) Ca 2 + concentration in solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured absorbance response of (a) ETH129/ETH7075/DOS/PVC Ca 2 + ionophore and (c) ETH 5294/DOS/PVC for sensing Cl O 4 , (b), (d) corresponding shift in resonant wavelength with changing ion concentration.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C ( film ) + H + ( aq ) + Cl O 4 ( aq ) Cl O 4 ( film ) + C H + ( film ) ,
n L ( film ) + 2 C H ( film ) + Ca 2 + ( aq ) L n Ca 2 + ( film ) + 2 C ( film ) + 2 H + ( aq ) ,

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