Abstract

We have experimentally demonstrated a cation and anion sensor by using short linear photonic crystal microcavities with an embedded quantum dot active region. The photonic crystal microcavity covered with an ion-selective polymer forms a submicrometer optical detection system sensitive to small changes of perchlorate anion (ClO4) and calcium cation (Ca2+) concentrations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. G. Somekh, J. Microsc. 206, 120 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirakarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, Opt. Lett. 29, 1093 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

2005 (2)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. G. Somekh, J. Microsc. 206, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anslyn, E. V.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asher, S. A.

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, E.

S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buhlmann, P.

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

Curey, T.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druckmann, S.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girolami, G.

Goodey, A.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grot, A.

Harrison, D. J.

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holy, P.

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, A.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavigne, J. J.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Linial, M.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDevitt, J. T.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirakarimi, L. W.

Neikirk, D. P.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottolenghi, M.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peleg, G.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peper, S.

S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrovic, S.

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pretsch, E.

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M. D.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosatzin, T.

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rusterholz, B.

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sabarinathan, J.

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savoy, S. M.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, K.

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shalom, S.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shear, J. B.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M.

Simmons, G.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, W.

K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, Y.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somekh, M. G.

M. G. Somekh, J. Microsc. 206, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, B. S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strinkovski, A.

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Topol’ancik, J.

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, A.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, J.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.-J.

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P. C.

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

S. Shalom, A. Strinkovski, G. Peleg, S. Druckmann, A. Krauss, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and M. Ottolenghi, Anal. Biochem. 244, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

T. Rosatzin, P. Holy, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, and W. Simon, Anal. Chem. 64, 2029 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, X. Li, S. Petrovic, and D. J. Harrison, Anal. Chem. 68, 1717 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

K. Seiler and W. Simon, Anal. Chim. Acta 266, 73 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Topol’an?ik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) (1)

P. Buhlmann, E. Pretsch, and E. Bakker, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 98, 1593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

K. Lee and S. A. Asher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Goodey, J. J. Lavigne, S. M. Savoy, M. D. Rodriguez, T. Curey, A. Tsao, G. Simmons, J. Wright, S.-J. Yoo, Y. Sohn, E. V. Anslyn, J. B. Shear, D. P. Neikirk, and J. T. McDevitt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2559 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. G. Somekh, J. Microsc. 206, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nat. Mater. 4, 205 (2005).

Nature (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Update (1)

S. Peper and E. Bakker, Sens. Update 13(1), 83 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic representation of an L4 photonic crystal microcavity in the GaAs heterostructure. The Al 0.8 Ga 0.2 As layer is wet oxidized to produce the bottom clad layer with n = 1.61 in the microcavity devices. (b) Photonic band structure evaluated by a three-dimensional plane-wave expansion simulation of the microcavity with holes at the edges shifted by 0.1 a . Band structure was calculated for a lattice constant a = 0.35 μ m , d a = 0.6 , and r a = 0.27 . (c) Room temperature micro-PL spectrum of a free-standing GaAs-based PC slab in air. Inset, scanning electron micrograph of a fabricated L4 PC microcavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shift in resonance wavelength of a PC microcavity with increasing (a) Cl O 4 concentration and (b) Ca 2 + concentration in solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured absorbance response of (a) ETH129/ETH7075/DOS/PVC Ca 2 + ionophore and (c) ETH 5294/DOS/PVC for sensing Cl O 4 , (b), (d) corresponding shift in resonant wavelength with changing ion concentration.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C ( film ) + H + ( aq ) + Cl O 4 ( aq ) Cl O 4 ( film ) + C H + ( film ) ,
n L ( film ) + 2 C H ( film ) + Ca 2 + ( aq ) L n Ca 2 + ( film ) + 2 C ( film ) + 2 H + ( aq ) ,

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