Abstract

We demonstrate extremely low-power all-optical bistability by utilizing silicon photonic crystal nanocavities, based on the plasma effect of carriers generated by two-photon absorption. Owing to the high quality factor and the small volume of the nanocavities, the photon density inside the cavity becomes extremely high, which leads to a large reduction in operation power. Optical bistable operation in a single nanocavity permits optical read–write memory operation, which opens the possibility of an integrated optical logic circuit on a single chip, based on photonic crystals. The demonstrated bistable threshold power is 0.4 mW with a set pulse energy of 74 fJ, at a switching speed of <100ps.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).
  4. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, Opt. Express 12, 1551 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Solja?i? and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nat. Mater. 3, 211 (2004), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. R. Almeida and L. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 2387 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi are preparing a manuscript to be called “All-optical switches on silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities.”
  11. P. W. Smith, E. H. Tuner, and P. J. Maloney, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 207 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Mitschke, R. Deserno, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 46, 135 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, Opt. Express 13, 801 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K.-H. Hellwege, ed., Landolt-Börnstein Group III Vol. 17a (Springer-Verlag, 1992).
  15. G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. F. Preble, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Proc. SPIE 5511, 10 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (5)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, Opt. Express 12, 1551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida and L. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 2387 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Solja?i? and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nat. Mater. 3, 211 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

F. Mitschke, R. Deserno, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 46, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. W. Smith, E. H. Tuner, and P. J. Maloney, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 207 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

S. F. Preble, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Proc. SPIE 5511, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida and L. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 2387 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barclay, P.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deserno, R.

F. Mitschke, R. Deserno, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 46, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H.

H. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Solja?i? and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nat. Mater. 3, 211 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kira, G.

Kuramochi, E.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, Opt. Express 12, 1551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi are preparing a manuscript to be called “All-optical switches on silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities.”

Lange, W.

F. Mitschke, R. Deserno, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 46, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, L.

Lipson, M.

S. F. Preble, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Proc. SPIE 5511, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maloney, P. J.

P. W. Smith, E. H. Tuner, and P. J. Maloney, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 207 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mitschke, F.

F. Mitschke, R. Deserno, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 46, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, Opt. Express 12, 1551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi are preparing a manuscript to be called “All-optical switches on silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities.”

Mlynek, J.

F. Mitschke, R. Deserno, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 46, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, Opt. Express 12, 1551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi are preparing a manuscript to be called “All-optical switches on silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities.”

Painter, O.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preble, S. F.

S. F. Preble, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Proc. SPIE 5511, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, G. W.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubio, D. S.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, H.-Y.

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, Opt. Express 12, 1551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi are preparing a manuscript to be called “All-optical switches on silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities.”

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, E. H. Tuner, and P. J. Maloney, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 207 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

M. Solja?i? and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nat. Mater. 3, 211 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Song, B.-S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 13, 2678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi are preparing a manuscript to be called “All-optical switches on silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities.”

Tuner, E. H.

P. W. Smith, E. H. Tuner, and P. J. Maloney, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 207 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Virk, K. S.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. W. Smith, E. H. Tuner, and P. J. Maloney, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 207 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Solja?i? and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nat. Mater. 3, 211 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Mitschke, R. Deserno, J. Mlynek, and W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 46, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. F. Preble, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Proc. SPIE 5511, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi are preparing a manuscript to be called “All-optical switches on silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities.”

K.-H. Hellwege, ed., Landolt-Börnstein Group III Vol. 17a (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the PhC nanocavity and spectral filtering operation. (b) Transmission waveform as a function of various input powers (in mW). a.u., arbitrary units. (c) Transmission waveforms for different wavelengths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Bistable switching-ON. (b) Bistable memory read–write operation. Three cases are represented. (1) Output waveform when only a bias input is applied. (2) Output when a set pulse is applied. (3) Output when a set pulse and a reset are applied. The dotted curve represents the input of case (3). a.u., arbitrary units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Numerical calculation of the step input response. Applied powers are shown in the graph. (b) Bistable switching calculation.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d u ( t ) d t = P ( t ) T [ δ + Δ n ( t ) λ ] u ( t ) τ Q ,
d N ( t ) d t = 2 λ c β h n 2 V 2 u ( t ) 2 N ( t ) τ c ,
d U T ( t ) d t = E g N ( t ) τ c U T ( t ) τ T ,
Δ n ( t ) = [ 8.8 × 10 22 N ( t ) + 8.5 × 10 18 N ( t ) 0.8 ] + 1.12 × 10 16 U T ( t ) ,

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