Abstract

Real-time, continuous-wave terahertz imaging is demonstrated with a 10mW, 2.52THz (118.8μm) far-infrared gas laser and a 160×120 element microbolometer camera. The microbolometer camera is designed for wavelengths of 7.514μm but retains sensitivity at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The setup has no moving parts, and transmission-mode THz images can be obtained at the video rate of 60  framess. The peak signal-to-noise ratio is estimated to be 13dB for a single frame of video, acquired in 16ms. With this setup, THz imaging through a FedEx envelope is demonstrated, showing the feasibility of real-time mail screening.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (3)

2003 (1)

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 963 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, Opt. Lett. 20, 1716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Butler, R. Blackwell, R. Murphy, R. Silva, and C. Marshall, Proc. SPIE 2552, 583 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
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Beck, M.

Beere, H.

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Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
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D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
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N. Butler, R. Blackwell, R. Murphy, R. Silva, and C. Marshall, Proc. SPIE 2552, 583 (1995).
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Butler, N.

N. Butler, R. Blackwell, R. Murphy, R. Silva, and C. Marshall, Proc. SPIE 2552, 583 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. M.

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ciesla, C. M.

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clothier, R.

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corchia, A.

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, G.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Debbage, P.

Dengler, R. J.

P. H. Siegel and R. J. Dengler, Proc. SPIE 5354, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Egusa, S.

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Darmo, V. Tamosiunas, G. Fasching, J. Kroll, K. Unterrainer, M. Beck, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, C. Kremser, and P. Debbage, Opt. Express 12, 1879 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fasching, G.

Giovannini, M.

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 963 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Hu, Q.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, Opt. Photonics News 15(10), 34 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khammo, N.

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kremser, C.

Kroll, J.

Kumar, S.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, C.

N. Butler, R. Blackwell, R. Murphy, R. Silva, and C. Marshall, Proc. SPIE 2552, 583 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R.

N. Butler, R. Blackwell, R. Murphy, R. Silva, and C. Marshall, Proc. SPIE 2552, 583 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 963 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Pepper, M.

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, M.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel and R. J. Dengler, Proc. SPIE 5354, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silva, R.

N. Butler, R. Blackwell, R. Murphy, R. Silva, and C. Marshall, Proc. SPIE 2552, 583 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tamosiunas, V.

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

Willenberg, H.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 963 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 963 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

K. Kawase, Opt. Photonics News 15(10), 34 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

P. H. Siegel and R. J. Dengler, Proc. SPIE 5354, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Butler, R. Blackwell, R. Murphy, R. Silva, and C. Marshall, Proc. SPIE 2552, 583 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arnone, C. M. Ciesla, A. Corchia, S. Egusa, M. Pepper, J. M. Chamberlain, C. Bezant, E. H. Linfield, R. Clothier, and N. Khammo, Proc. SPIE 3828, 209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: solid lines, paths of THz beams. Dotted lines, marginal rays of the camera lens, which are focused to a point on the object. FPA, focal-plane array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

White-light and terahertz images of a scaled razor blade. (a) white-light image; (b) white-light image partially obscured by a blackened low-density polyethylene sheet; (c) the same image as (b) at 2.52 THz , taken with a 16 ms acquisition time and with the histogram adjusted; (d) sample of a FedEx envelope (made from DuPont Tyvek, a fibrous HDPE material), and marked HDPE; (e) a razor blade completely inside a FedEx envelope at 2.52 THz , taken with a 5 s acquisition time and with the histogram adjusted.

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