Abstract

We report significant improvement in terahertz (THz) power and efficiency using photoconductive sources by use of a spatially extended line source excitation and the trap enhanced field effect that occurs in sources made on semi-insulating GaAs. The combination of high electric fields and reduced screening effects allows 10μW of THz power to be generated with 14mW of absorbed optical power, demonstrating nearly 0.1% optical-to-THz conversion efficiency.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (3)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. M. Planken and H. J. Bakker, Appl. Phys. A 14, 465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. R. Andrews, A. Armitage, P. G. Huggard, and A. Hussain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3705 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralph, M. R. Melloch, and E. S. Harmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. L. Woolard, R. J. Trew, and M. A. Littlejohn, Solid-State Electron. 31, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

S. R. Andrews, A. Armitage, P. G. Huggard, and A. Hussain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3705 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armitage, A.

S. R. Andrews, A. Armitage, P. G. Huggard, and A. Hussain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3705 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

P. C. M. Planken and H. J. Bakker, Appl. Phys. A 14, 465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, S.

S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

Federici, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, E. S.

S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralph, M. R. Melloch, and E. S. Harmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

J. Shan and T. F. Heinz, in Ultrafast Dynamical Processes in Semiconductors, K.-T. Tsen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 1–56.
[CrossRef]

Huggard, P. G.

S. R. Andrews, A. Armitage, P. G. Huggard, and A. Hussain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3705 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussain, A.

S. R. Andrews, A. Armitage, P. G. Huggard, and A. Hussain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3705 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. R.

Littlejohn, M. A.

D. L. Woolard, R. J. Trew, and M. A. Littlejohn, Solid-State Electron. 31, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lopata, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralph, M. R. Melloch, and E. S. Harmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morse, J. D.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

P. C. M. Planken and H. J. Bakker, Appl. Phys. A 14, 465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, S. S.

S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralph, M. R. Melloch, and E. S. Harmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralph, M. R. Melloch, and E. S. Harmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schouten, R. N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

J. Shan and T. F. Heinz, in Ultrafast Dynamical Processes in Semiconductors, K.-T. Tsen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 1–56.
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Trew, R. J.

D. L. Woolard, R. J. Trew, and M. A. Littlejohn, Solid-State Electron. 31, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wenckebach, W. Th.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woolard, D. L.

D. L. Woolard, R. J. Trew, and M. A. Littlejohn, Solid-State Electron. 31, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

You, D.

Zhang, X.-C.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

P. C. M. Planken and H. J. Bakker, Appl. Phys. A 14, 465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralph, M. R. Melloch, and E. S. Harmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Coleman and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. R. Andrews, A. Armitage, P. G. Huggard, and A. Hussain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3705 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

D. L. Woolard, R. J. Trew, and M. A. Littlejohn, Solid-State Electron. 31, 571 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Shan and T. F. Heinz, in Ultrafast Dynamical Processes in Semiconductors, K.-T. Tsen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 1–56.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimentally observed THz power from point excitation and spatially extended line excitations. Dotted–dashed line, the expected square-law dependence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of THz power: unscreened and with space-charge screening, near-field radiation screening, and both screenings, with spectral filtering for a Gaussian point excitation of 6 μ m diameter. The experimental result is also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and experimentally observed THz power for 180 μ m line excitation. Constant efficiency contours are also shown.

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