Abstract

We report on the measurement of nonlinear phase shift ϕNL induced by a strong pump at wavelength λp on a weak signal at λs through a cascade of two second-order interactions in a periodically poled lithium-niobate waveguide. The experiment is performed by use of an interferometric scheme especially designed to be insensitive to slow mechanical and thermal drift effects. The observed behavior of ϕNL as a function of pump power and of wavelength difference λpλs is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2003

L. Razzari, C. Liberale, I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, and V. Degiorgio, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

1993

1992

1973

R. Barger, M. Sorem, and J. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Baek, Y.

Banfi, G. P.

S. Nitti, H. M. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Commun. 106, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and A. Tomaselli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barger, R.

R. Barger, M. Sorem, and J. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carbone, F.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cha, M.

Chaban, E. E.

H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chou, H.

H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christman, S. B.

H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

L. Razzari, C. Liberale, I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, and V. Degiorgio, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Salvo, R.

Degiorgio, V.

L. Razzari, C. Liberale, I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, and V. Degiorgio, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Nitti, H. M. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Commun. 106, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grundkotter, W.

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hall, J.

R. Barger, M. Sorem, and J. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, H.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanbara, H.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, H. K.

Lee, Y. L.

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liberale, C.

L. Razzari, C. Liberale, I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, and V. Degiorgio, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, H.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nitti, S.

S. Nitti, H. M. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Commun. 106, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quiring, V.

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

L. Razzari, C. Liberale, I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, and V. Degiorgio, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sceik-Bahae, M.

Schiek, R.

Schreiber, G.

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seibert, H.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Socci, L.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Schiek, M. L. Sundheimer, D. Y. Kim, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, H. Seibert, and W. Sohler, Opt. Lett. 19, 1949 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorem, M.

R. Barger, M. Sorem, and J. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

Stegeman, G. I.

Suche, H.

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sundheimer, M. L.

Tan, H.

H. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and A. Tomaselli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. M.

S. Nitti, H. M. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Commun. 106, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tediosi, R.

L. Razzari, C. Liberale, I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, and V. Degiorgio, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomaselli, A.

H. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and A. Tomaselli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.

Vanherzeele, H.

Yanagawa, T.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

G. Schreiber, H. Suche, Y. L. Lee, W. Grundkotter, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 73, 501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Barger, M. Sorem, and J. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and A. Tomaselli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. Razzari, C. Liberale, I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, and V. Degiorgio, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Socci, F. Carbone, and M. Romagnoli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Nitti, H. M. Tan, G. P. Banfi, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Commun. 106, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; M, mirror; O’s, objectives; IF 1 , IF 2 , interference filters; PD LF , PD HF , photodiodes; λ 2 , half-wavelength retardation plate; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; PI, proportional and integral servo electronics; HVA, high-voltage amplifier; Σ, adder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured average values of the time-dependent output of the MZI, plotted as a function of λ p λ s , for three cases: Φ = π 2 , Φ = π 2 , and blocked reference arm. The average second-harmonic power at the waveguide output is 9 mW .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Peak gain and (b) peak nonlinear phase shift plotted as functions of λ p λ s for three distinct values of the average pump power. Curves represent the solutions of the propagation equations.

Equations (2)

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P out = 1 2 { P s + P r + P s [ ( g 2 1 ) + 2 g F cos ( Φ + ϕ NL ) ] } ,
P out [ Φ = ± ( π 2 ) ] = 1 2 { P s + P r + P s [ ( g 2 1 ) ± 2 g F sin ( ϕ NL ) ] } .

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