Abstract

The spectral properties of elastic light-scattering signals have been shown to provide a wealth of information on nanostructures and microstructures. We present elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscopy that allows simultaneous acquisition of microscopic images and backscattering spectra at each pixel. Within a single homogeneous micrometer-scale particle we observe two distinct and highly localized spectral oscillation features that arise from different optical paths: (1) surface waves (e.g., the ripple structure) and (2) a not previously reported anomalous ripple structure that is due to the interference of waves scattered from front and back surfaces at the particle’s center. We also demonstrate that the spectroscopic data can provide nanoscale structural information beyond what conventional microscopy reveals.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. X. Li, Z. G. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Proc. SPIE 5693, 92 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Wax, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 1230 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. T. Valentine, A. K. Popp, D. A. Weitz, and P. D. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 26, 890 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. N. Boustany, S. C. Kuo, and N. V. Thakor, Opt. Lett. 26, 1063 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O’Conell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and D. L. T. Perelman “Optical spectroscopy non-invasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
  9. A. Curry, G. Nusz, A. Chilkoti, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 13, 2668 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).
  11. P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods, Advanced Series in Applied Physics (World Scientific, 1990).
  12. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

2005 (2)

X. Li, Z. G. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Proc. SPIE 5693, 92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Curry, G. Nusz, A. Chilkoti, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 13, 2668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

X. Li, Z. G. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Proc. SPIE 5693, 92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Am, I.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods, Advanced Series in Applied Physics (World Scientific, 1990).

Boppart, S. A.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boustany, N. N.

Brezinski, M. E.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. G.

X. Li, Z. G. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Proc. SPIE 5693, 92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chilkoti, A.

Curry, A.

Drexler, W.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

du Manoir, S.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson-Smith, M. A.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garini, Y.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

Hill, S. C.

P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods, Advanced Series in Applied Physics (World Scientific, 1990).

Huie, P.

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O’Conell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and D. L. T. Perelman “Optical spectroscopy non-invasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Izatt, J. A.

Kaplan, P. D.

Kim, Y. L.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krinsky, M. L.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kromine, A. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. C.

Ledbetter, D. H.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, Z. G. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Proc. SPIE 5693, 92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mashimo, H.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mutinga, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ning, Y.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nusz, G.

O’Conell-Rodwell, C.

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O’Conell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and D. L. T. Perelman “Optical spectroscopy non-invasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Palanker, D.

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O’Conell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and D. L. T. Perelman “Optical spectroscopy non-invasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Perelman, D. L. T.

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O’Conell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and D. L. T. Perelman “Optical spectroscopy non-invasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popp, A. K.

Ried, T.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roy, H. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schoell, B.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schrock, E.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schuele, G.

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O’Conell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and D. L. T. Perelman “Optical spectroscopy non-invasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Soenksen, D.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

X. Li, Z. G. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Proc. SPIE 5693, 92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

Thakor, N. V.

Valentine, M. T.

Van Dam, J.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

Veldman, T.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, E.

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O’Conell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and D. L. T. Perelman “Optical spectroscopy non-invasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Wali, R. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

Weitz, D. A.

Wienberg, J.

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

Endoscopy (1)

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Endoscopy 32, 921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology (1)

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

X. Li, Z. G. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Proc. SPIE 5693, 92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Schrock, S. du Manoir, T. Veldman, B. Schoell, J. Wienberg, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, Y. Ning, D. H. Ledbetter, I. Bar-Am, D. Soenksen, Y. Garini, and T. Ried, Science 273, 494 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods, Advanced Series in Applied Physics (World Scientific, 1990).

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O’Conell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and D. L. T. Perelman “Optical spectroscopy non-invasively monitors response of organelles to cellular stress,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscope system. (a) C, condenser; L1, L2, lenses ( f = 150 mm ) ; A1, A2, apertures [ D ( A 1 ) = 2 mm , D ( A 2 ) = 6 mm ]; BS, beam splitter; TL, tube lens ( f = 450 mm ) ; F, flipper; SS, scanning stage; SP, imaging spectrograph (slit width 10 μ m , spectral resolution 3 nm ). (b) Simultaneous image and spectrum acquisition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microscopic image of a 6 μ m polystyrene microsphere embedded in agarose gel (gel concentration, 1%; microsphere density, 8 × 10 5   particles ml ). The focal plane is located approximately at the center of the sphere, and the sphere is 100 μ m below the surface. (b), (c) Representative scattering spectra recorded from (b) the periphery I p ( λ ) and (c) the center I c ( λ ) of the microsphere with Mie and slab model simulations, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) FDTD simulation, in agreement with I c ( λ ) from a microsphere experimentally measured by using the elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscope. (b) I c ( λ ) calculated by the FDTD method for two spheres with a 50 nm difference in diameter (6.00 and 6.05 μ m , respectively).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Representative microscopic image of aggregated polystyrene microspheres in air with mean diameters D of A, 5.9 μ m ; B, 3.1 μ m ; C, 5.9 μ m ; D, 4.78 μ m . (b)–(e) I c ( λ ) recorded from the four microspheres shown in panel (a) along with the slab model I s ( λ ) , fitting (b) I s ( λ , D = 5.935 μ m ) , (c) I s ( λ , D = 3.095 μ m ) , (d) I s ( λ , D = 5.90 μ m ) , (e) I s ( λ , D = 4.73 μ m ) . Evidently I c ( λ ) is not affected by multiple scattering, and it permits measurement of a particle size with an accuracy better than ± 50 nm . On the other hand, as shown in (f), the conventional ripple structure I p ( λ ) (i.e., due to the surface wave) is affected by the interactions of neighboring particles.

Metrics