Abstract

A new method, called barrier coupling, for coupling light into ion-implanted waveguides is presented in analogy to prism coupling. Light is coupled by frustrated total reflection at the barrier region of decreased refractive index by proper variation of the incident angle. Effective indices of guided modes are determined by the minima of the non-incoupled reflected light. The method is used for the determination of the effective indices of an ion-implanted waveguide in KNbO3. It is simpler than most other techniques, more accurate, and nondestructive.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2004 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

D. Fluck and P. Gunter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 122 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023 (1993).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

Aka, G.

Boudrioua, A.

Buchal, Ch.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chandler, P. J.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Fleuster, M.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023 (1993).
[Crossref]

Flores-Romero, E.

Fluck, D.

D. Fluck and P. Gunter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 122 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gunter, P.

D. Fluck and P. Gunter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Günter, P.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

Jacquier, B.

Jundt, D. H.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023 (1993).
[Crossref]

Loulergue, J. C.

Lu, Q. M.

Marquez, H.

Moretti, P.

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Richards, J.

Shen, D. Y.

Teng, B.

Torge, R.

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

Trejo-Luna, R.

Ulrich, R.

Vazquez, G. V.

Vivien, D.

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, K. M.

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Fluck and P. Gunter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 122 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. P and L are the polarizer and the focusing lens, respectively. Light is detected by a photodiode (PD). (b) Ray description to illustrate heuristically incoupling and outcoupling of the waveguide. (c) Refractive-index distribution[7] of the ion-implanted waveguide used in the experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectivity measurement of a double He + ion-implanted KNbO 3 with energies 2.2 and 2.3 MeV and a total dose of 1.5 × 10 15 cm 2 ; Fresnel losses are taken into account. Dashed curve, reflectivity under resonant coupling as predicted by the theoretical model described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Indices of TE modes of He + ion-implanted KNbO 3 as a function of mode number m on a quadratic scale. The barrier-coupling measurement (filled circles) is compared with the prism-coupling measurement (open squares).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β k z = k 0 N = k 0 ( n c 2 cos 2 θ ) 1 2 ,
β = k 0 N m .
E R ( z ) = A r b r b { exp ( z 2 w 2 ) Γ μ π exp ( μ z w ) [ 1 + erf ( z w μ 2 ) ] exp [ ( μ 2 ) 2 ] } .
R = E R ( z ) 2 d z E I ( z ) 2 d z

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