Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides micrometer-scale structural imaging by coherent detection of backscattered light. Molecular contrast in OCT has been demonstrated using transient absorption, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, and second-harmonic (SH) generation. The sensitivity of molecular contrast signals can be enhanced by use of Fourier domain techniques. We have constructed a spectrometer-based Fourier domain SH-OCT system for simultaneous acquisition of the fundamental and SH signals. We report a>30dB increase in SH sensitivity over a similar time domain SH-OCT system and demonstrate contrast between cartilage and bone using collagen as the contrast agent.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (5)

2003 (8)

2000 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 2252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belabas, N.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bredfeldt, J. S.

Campagnola, P. L.

L. M. Loew and P. L. Campagnola, Nat. Biotechnol. 11, 1356 (2003).

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Choma, M. A.

de Boer, J. F.

Dorrer, C.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J. A.

Jiang, Y.

Joffre, M.

Laiho, S. L.H.

Leitgeb, R.

Likforman, J. P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

L. M. Loew and P. L. Campagnola, Nat. Biotechnol. 11, 1356 (2003).

Marks, D. L.

Nassif, N.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, K. D.

Rollins, A. M.

B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 2252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T.C.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tomov, I.

Vinegoni, C.

Wang, Y.

Yang, C.

B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 24, 2252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

L. M. Loew and P. L. Campagnola, Nat. Biotechnol. 11, 1356 (2003).

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the SD SH-OCT layout. The solid gray line represents the fundamental beam path, and the dotted black line represents the beam path for the second-harmonic light. Spect n ω , spectrometer designed for the n th harmonic; DG, diffraction grating; Det, detector; OBJ, objective; NA, numerical aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A-scans acquired with the SD SH-OCT system for A, a polished 100 GaAs wafer and B, a coated aluminum mirror in the sample arm. FUN, signal from the fundamental channel; SHG, signal from the second-harmonic channel. The peak labeled E represents an echo from the back surface of the GaAs wafer. The fundamental channel signal (dashed curve) was attenuated by 45 dB to match the dynamic range of the detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensitivity versus sample distance for the second-harmonic signal from a BBO crystal and a 40 dB reflector in the sample. The source power on the sample was 45 mW, and the integration time of the second-harmonic detector was 1.5 ms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Overlay of second-harmonic molecular contrast on OCT image of A, fish skin from the belly of an Icelandic salmon and B, a wing bone from a young chicken ( < 5 weeks). E, echo from the top surface.

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