Abstract

We report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of two-photon correlated imaging with true thermal light from a hollow cathode lamp. The coherence time of the source is much shorter than that of previous experiments using random scattered light from a laser. A two-pinhole mask was used as object, and the corresponding thin lens equation was well satisfied. Since thermal light sources are easier to obtain and measure than entangled light, it is conceivable that they may be used in special imaging applications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. Abouraddy, B. E.A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123602 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. D’Angelo and Y. H. Shih, arXiv.org e-Print archive, arXiv. quant-ph/0302146 (2003).
  6. G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 70, 051802(R) (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 013802 (2004).
  10. Y. J. Cai and S. Y. Zhu, LANL arXiv.org e-Print archive, arXiv. quant-ph/0407240 (2004).
  11. Y. J. Cai and S. Y. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 29, 2716 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Z. Cao, J. X., and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Magatti, F. Ferri, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, arXiv.org e-Print archive, arXiv. quant-ph/0408021 (2004).
  15. B. Welz, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (Verlag Chemie, 1976).
  16. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Clarendon, 1983).
  17. M. I. Kolobov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Hanbury Brown, The Intensity Interferometer (Taylor & Francis, 1974), see Eq. 4.26.
  19. J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Z. Cao, J. X., and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 70, 051802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 013802 (2004).

Y. J. Cai and S. Y. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 29, 2716 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E.A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. I. Kolobov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E.A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bache, M.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 013802 (2004).

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, E.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 013802 (2004).

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. Hanbury

R. Hanbury Brown, The Intensity Interferometer (Taylor & Francis, 1974), see Eq. 4.26.

Cai, Y. J.

Cao, D. Z.

D. Z. Cao, J. X., and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 013802 (2004).

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Howell, J. C.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, M. I.

M. I. Kolobov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Clarendon, 1983).

Lugiato, L. A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 013802 (2004).

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E.A.

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E.A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scarcelli, G.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 70, 051802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E.A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 70, 051802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E.A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 70, 051802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. G.

D. Z. Cao, J. X., and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Welz, B.

B. Welz, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (Verlag Chemie, 1976).

X., J.

D. Z. Cao, J. X., and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. Y.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

D. Z. Cao, J. X., and K. G. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 70, 051802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 013802 (2004).

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E.A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. I. Kolobov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. Hanbury Brown, The Intensity Interferometer (Taylor & Francis, 1974), see Eq. 4.26.

D. Magatti, F. Ferri, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, arXiv.org e-Print archive, arXiv. quant-ph/0408021 (2004).

B. Welz, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (Verlag Chemie, 1976).

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Clarendon, 1983).

M. D’Angelo and Y. H. Shih, arXiv.org e-Print archive, arXiv. quant-ph/0302146 (2003).

Y. J. Cai and S. Y. Zhu, LANL arXiv.org e-Print archive, arXiv. quant-ph/0407240 (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the HBT type experiment. HCL, hollow cathode lamp; L 1 , lens of focal length 10 cm; pinhole diameter, 0.5 mm; effective diameter of collimators, 2 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Number of counts versus time interval for the HBT type experiment. Solid curve, Gaussian fit of data points. The FWHM is 1.3 ns .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the ghost imaging experiment. Focal length of L 2 , 20 cm; z 1 z 2 = 32.5 cm , z 3 = 12.4 cm , z 2 = 1.4 m ; the image of the cathode is about 1 mm in diameter. Inset, object mask with two pinholes of diameter 0.5 mm, 1.7 mm apart.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the normalized second-order correlation function g ( 2 ) on the position of fiber collimator C 2 , which gives the cross-sectional image of the two pinholes. The solid curve is calculated taking into consideration the finite size of the detectors.[18]

Equations (7)

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G ( 2 ) ( t 2 t 1 ) = ψ E ̂ 2 ( t 2 ) ( ) E ̂ 1 ( t 1 ) ( ) E ̂ 1 ( t 1 ) ( + ) E ̂ 2 ( t 2 ) ( + ) ψ ,
g ( 2 ) ( t 2 t 1 ) = G ( 2 ) ( t 2 t 1 ) G 1 ( 1 ) ( t 1 ) G 2 ( 1 ) ( t 2 ) ,
G i ( 1 ) ( t i ) = ψ E ̂ i ( t i ) ( ) E ̂ i ( t i ) ( + ) ψ .
G i ( 1 ) ( t i ) = I i ,
lim ( t 2 t 1 ) G ( 2 ) ( t 2 t 1 ) = G 1 ( 1 ) ( t 1 ) G 2 ( 1 ) ( t 2 ) = I 1 I 2 ,
1 z 2 z 1 + 1 z 3 = 1 f ,
g ( 2 ) ( x 2 ) N + T ( z 3 z 1 z 2 x 2 ) 2 ,

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