Abstract

A novel technique for microfabricating alkali atom vapor cells is described in which alkali atoms are evaporated into a micromachined cell cavity through a glass nozzle. A cell of interior volume 1mm3, containing Rb87 and a buffer gas, was made in this way and integrated into an atomic clock based on coherent population trapping. A fractional frequency instability of 6×1012 at 1000s of integration was measured. The long-term drift of the F=1, mF=0F=2, mF=0 hyperfine frequency of atoms in these cells is below 5×1011day.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.
  3. P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.
  6. L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam-Hilger, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Arimondo, in Progress In Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 257–354.
    [CrossRef]

2005

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, in Progress In Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 257–354.
[CrossRef]

Audoin, C.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam-Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Geib, K. M.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Hollberg, L.

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.

Kitching, J.

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.

Knappe, S.

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.

Leblanc, J.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Liew, L.

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.

Liew, L. A.

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lutwak, R.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Mescher, M.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Moreland, J.

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.

Peake, G. M.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Riley, W.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Robinson, H.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.

Schwindt, P.

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwindt, P. D. D.

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serkland, D. K.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Shah, V.

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tepolt, G.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam-Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, M.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

Velichansky, V.

S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 14, 1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Knappe, V. Velichansky, H. G. Robinson, L. Liew, J. Moreland, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2003), pp. 31–32.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, L. A. Breakiron, ed. (U. S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 339–354.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam-Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo, in Progress In Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 257–354.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Output frequency of the CPT clock, normalized to the frequency of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of the alkali atom, for Cs atoms excited on the D 2 line CSAC (black), Rb 87 atoms excited on the D 1 line CSAC (light gray) and the Rb 87 D 1 line frequency reference based on the cell fabricated with the new evaporative filling method (gray).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Novel filling method for chip-scale alkali vapor cells. (a) The silicon and glass preform and the cover glass are baked at 300 ° C inside the vacuum chamber. (b) A mixture of barium azide and alkali chloride is reacted inside a glass ampoule to create barium, chlorine, alkali atoms, and nitrogen; the nitrogen is pumped away. (c) The alkali atoms are diffused through the glass nozzle into the cell preform. (d) The chamber is then filled with an appropriate mixture of buffer gases. Finally, the cover glass is anodically bonded to the silicon preform at a temperature of 300 ° C and with 200 V applied across the sample. HV, high voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fractional frequency instability characterized by the Allan deviation σ y ( τ ) as a function of averaging time of the Cs D 2 CSAC (squares) and the Rb 87 D 1 CSAC (circles) compared with the instability of the frequency reference based on a cell made with the new evaporative filling method (triangles). This last clock was based on the D 1 line of Rb 87 .

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