Abstract

We present an arbitrary optical single-frequency generator based on a femtosecond optical frequency comb. The functions of this device are comparable to those of a radio-frequency synthesizer. However, this device operates at hundreds of terahertz. The absolute frequency accuracy of this synthesizer is 1kHz at a 282 THz carrier frequency. The stability is 2×1014 at 100 s, and the tuning speed exceeds 30GHzs. This source demonstrates the integration of a phase-locked optical comb into a versatile and easy-to-use system for the generation of tunable, absolute optical frequencies. By using downconversion, one could generate tunable terahertz frequencies that are phase locked to a microwave reference, such as a Cs atomic clock, and high-precision interferometry could benefit greatly from the stability and accuracy of this widely tunable source.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Jost, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 10, 515 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. R. Washburn, R. W. Fox, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, K. Feder, and P. S. Westbrook, Opt. Express 12, 4999 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Washburn, R. W. Fox, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, K. Feder, and P. S. Westbrook, Opt. Express 12, 4999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feder, K.

Fox, R. W.

Guo, R.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. D. Jost, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 10, 515 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jost, J. D.

Koga, Y.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Onae, A.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tohyama, O.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, B. R.

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamadori, S.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.-I.

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zhang, Y.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Inaba, T. Ikegami, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, Y. Koga, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, S. Yamadori, O. Tohyama, and S.-I. Yamaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Solid and dashed lines represent optical and electrical signals, respectively. See text for explanations. AOM, acousto-optical modulator; PZTs, piezoelectric transducers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-dependent loop filters can drastically reduce the settling time of the system. Beat-note frequency between the optical synthesizer output and an iodine-stabilized Nd : YAG laser after a 4 GHz frequency step (a) without and (b) with a dynamic loop filter. The counter gate time was 0.1 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stability of the synthesizer (open circles): Allan deviation between the optical synthesizer output and the iodine-stabilized laser. Performance of the digital servo (open squares): Allan deviation between the cw laser and the iodine-stabilized laser. Dashed curve, Allan deviation between two identical iodine-stabilized Nd : YAG lasers.[6]

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tuning of the optical frequency. Beat-note frequency between the optical synthesizer output and an iodine-stabilized Nd : YAG laser for several tuning functions: (a) 1 GHz steps, (b) 8 GHz linear triangular function, (c) sinusoidal function with 8 GHz peak-to-peak amplitude. A 12 GHz frequency counter with a 100 ms gate time was used to record these beat notes. (d) Fast sweep with 20 GHz peak-to-peak amplitude; the figure represents the driving voltage for the tuning of the cw laser. The slope equals > 32 GHz s , or 2 THz min .

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