Abstract

We report enhancement of electroluminescence through opaque-topped metal cathodes in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), which are periodically corrugated in two dimensions. The enhancement is caused by grating-induced cross coupling and outcoupling of surface plasmons. The emission intensity observed at normal direction is enhanced by a factor of 4 compared with that of OLEDs with one-dimensionally corrugated metal cathodes and is higher than that observed from the transparent substrate side in uncorrugated OLEDs. We attribute the enhancement to the fact that the surface plasmons propagating in all lateral directions are coupled out into free space by the two-dimensional corrugated structure of the OLEDs. In addition, the emission from the transparent substrate side is also much enhanced owing to the efficient coupling out of the waveguide modes trapped in the emissive layer.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Rigneault, F. Lemarchand, and A. Sentenac, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1048 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, J. A.E. Wassy, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3035 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barns, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 52, 11441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

I. Pockrand, Opt. Commun. 13, 311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

S. Wedge, J. A.E. Wassy, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3035 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barns, W. L.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barns, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 52, 11441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjerneld, E. J.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Börjesson, L.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gifford, D. K.

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gruhlke, R. W.

R. W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H’Dhili, F.

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D. G.

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, W. R.

R. W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitson, S. C.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barns, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 52, 11441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lemarchand, F.

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, Opt. Commun. 13, 311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Prodan, E.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, R. H.

R. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rigneault, H.

Sage, I.

S. Wedge, J. A.E. Wassy, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barns, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 52, 11441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sentenac, A.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wassy, J. A.E.

S. Wedge, J. A.E. Wassy, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

S. Wedge, J. A.E. Wassy, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Worthing, P. T.

P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3035 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, J. A.E. Wassy, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Worthing and W. L. Barnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3035 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

I. Pockrand, Opt. Commun. 13, 311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barns, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. B 52, 11441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

S. Kawata, ed., Near-Field Optics and Surface Plasmon Polaritons (Springer-Verlag, 2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Configuration of the corrugated and flat OLEDs. (b) Atomic-force microscope image of the surface of the top metallic cathode of an OLED fabricated with 2-D corrugation. (c) Angular dependence of EL spectra observed from the silver sides of the 1-D and 2-D corrugated devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy versus wave vector for the calculated silver–air interface surface-plasmon dispersion relation of 2-D corrugation (dashed lines) and the measured dispersion relation of 1-D and 2-D corrugated devices. Wave vector k x is normalized with grating wave vector K ( = 2 π Λ ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EL spectra observed at normal directions of 1-D and 2-D corrugated and flat devices.

Equations (1)

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k SP ( cos ϕ sin ϕ ) + m K ( 1 0 ) + n K ( 1 2 3 2 ) = ( k x 0 ) ,

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