Abstract

The photoaging process of facial skin is investigated by use of multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. We obtain the autofluorescence (AF) and SHG images of the superficial dermis from the facial skin of three patients aged 20, 40, and 70  years. The results show that areas of AF increase with age, whereas areas of SHG decrease with age. The results are consistent with the histological findings in which collagen is progressively replaced by elastic fibers. The AF and SHG changes in photoaging are quantified by a SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID). Our results suggest that SAAID can be a good indicator of the severity of photoaging.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Yarr and B. Gilchrest, in Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003), pp. 1386–1398.
  2. W. Manuskiatti, R. Fitzpatrick, and M. Goldman, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40, 401 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Kligman and Y. Zhen, Dermatol. Surg. 30, 1085 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. So, C. Dong, B. Masters, and K. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Zoumi, X. Lu, G. Kassab, and B. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 87, 2778 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. Tromberg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 11014 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Campagnola and L. Loew, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Hsiao, Y. Sun, W. Lo, W.-C. Lin, G.-J. Jan, S.-H. Jee, and C.-Y. Dong, Opt. Lett. 30, 622 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Sun, J. Su, W. Lo, S. Lin, S. Jee, and C. Dong, Opt. Express 11, 3377 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

D. Kligman and Y. Zhen, Dermatol. Surg. 30, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoumi, X. Lu, G. Kassab, and B. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 87, 2778 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. Campagnola and L. Loew, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. Su, W. Lo, S. Lin, S. Jee, and C. Dong, Opt. Express 11, 3377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. Tromberg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 11014 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

P. So, C. Dong, B. Masters, and K. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Manuskiatti, R. Fitzpatrick, and M. Goldman, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40, 401 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berland, K.

P. So, C. Dong, B. Masters, and K. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, Y.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butler, P.

P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P.

P. Campagnola and L. Loew, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christie, R.

W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

diTomaso, E.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.

Y. Sun, J. Su, W. Lo, S. Lin, S. Jee, and C. Dong, Opt. Express 11, 3377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. So, C. Dong, B. Masters, and K. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.-Y.

Fitzpatrick, R.

W. Manuskiatti, R. Fitzpatrick, and M. Goldman, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40, 401 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrest, B.

M. Yarr and B. Gilchrest, in Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003), pp. 1386–1398.

Goldman, M.

W. Manuskiatti, R. Fitzpatrick, and M. Goldman, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40, 401 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, S.

P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, C.-Y.

Hyman, B.

W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jan, G.-J.

Jee, S.

Jee, S.-H.

Kassab, G.

A. Zoumi, X. Lu, G. Kassab, and B. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 87, 2778 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kligman, D.

D. Kligman and Y. Zhen, Dermatol. Surg. 30, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

Lin, S.-J.

Lin, W.-C.

Lo, W.

Loew, L.

P. Campagnola and L. Loew, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

A. Zoumi, X. Lu, G. Kassab, and B. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 87, 2778 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manuskiatti, W.

W. Manuskiatti, R. Fitzpatrick, and M. Goldman, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40, 401 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masters, B.

P. So, C. Dong, B. Masters, and K. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McKee, T.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A.

W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pluen, A.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Randolph, M.

P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seed, B.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

So, P.

P. So, C. Dong, B. Masters, and K. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

Sun, Y.

Tromberg, B.

A. Zoumi, X. Lu, G. Kassab, and B. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 87, 2778 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. Tromberg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 11014 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W.

W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R.

W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yaremchuk, M.

P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yarr, M.

M. Yarr and B. Gilchrest, in Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003), pp. 1386–1398.

Yeh, A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. Tromberg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 11014 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhen, Y.

D. Kligman and Y. Zhen, Dermatol. Surg. 30, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W.

W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zoumi, A.

A. Zoumi, X. Lu, G. Kassab, and B. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 87, 2778 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. Tromberg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 11014 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

P. So, C. Dong, B. Masters, and K. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

A. Zoumi, X. Lu, G. Kassab, and B. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 87, 2778 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg.

D. Kligman and Y. Zhen, Dermatol. Surg. 30, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.

W. Manuskiatti, R. Fitzpatrick, and M. Goldman, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 40, 401 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

P. Campagnola and L. Loew, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (N.Y.)

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. Jain, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 9, 796 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Plast. Reconstr. Surg.

P. Butler, S. Gonzalez, M. Randolph, J. Kim, N. Kollias, and M. Yaremchuk, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 107, 222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. Tromberg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 11014 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Zipfel, R. Williams, R. Christie, A. Nikitin, B. Hyman, and W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Yarr and B. Gilchrest, in Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003), pp. 1386–1398.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

H&E stains (A1, B1, C1), elastic stains (A2, B2, C2), and AF and SHG images (A3, B3, C3; SHG signals are blue and AF signals are green) of the three cases ( 20 - year -old, A1–A3; 40 - year -old, B1–B3; 70 - year -old, C1–C3). Bars, 100 μ m in H&E stains and elastic stains, 50 μ m in AF and SHG images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SAAID of the three cases. Error bars represent the standard deviations calculated from SAAID determinations from five randomly chosen areas in the superficial dermis.

Metrics