Abstract

As the complexity of microphotonic devices grows, the ability to precisely trim microring resonators becomes increasingly important. Photo-oxidation trimming uses UV irradiation to oxidize a cladding layer composed of polymerized hexamethyldisilane (6M2S) deposited with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). PECVD 6M2S has optical properties that are compatible with microring devices, and its high cross linking renders it insoluble. Photo-oxidation decreases the refractive index of PECVD 6M2S by nearly 4%, permitting large resonance shifts that are not feasible with thermal trimming techniques. Resonance shifts from single-mode, 100     μm diameter Si3N4 (n=2.2) rings were as large as 12.8nm for the TE mode and 23.5nm for the TM mode.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

2004 (2)

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 43, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, Proc. SPIE 5225, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Capuzzo, L. T. Gomez, T. N. Nielsen, and I. Brener, Opt. Lett. 24, 22, 1555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Heimala, P. Katila, J. Aarnio, and A. Heinamaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, and E. W. Kwock, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. D. Miller and J. Michl, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 89, 1359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. G. Robertson and G. L. Wilkes, Polymer 39, 2129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Aarnio, J.

P. Heimala, P. Katila, J. Aarnio, and A. Heinamaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 43, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 43, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Bruce, A. J.

Capuzzo, M. A.

Choi, S. J.

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, Proc. SPIE 5225, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, K. K.

Gomez, L. T.

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heimala, P.

P. Heimala, P. Katila, J. Aarnio, and A. Heinamaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heinamaki, A.

P. Heimala, P. Katila, J. Aarnio, and A. Heinamaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hornak, L. A.

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, and E. W. Kwock, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Katila, P.

P. Heimala, P. Katila, J. Aarnio, and A. Heinamaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kwock, E. W.

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, and E. W. Kwock, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 43, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lock, J. P.

Madsen, C. K.

Martin, R. J.

McGahan, W. A.

H. G. Tomkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry (Wiley-Interscience, 1999).

Michl, J.

R. D. Miller and J. Michl, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 89, 1359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

R. D. Miller and J. Michl, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 89, 1359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T. N.

Pan, W.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 43, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, C. G.

C. G. Robertson and G. L. Wilkes, Polymer 39, 2129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smolinsky, G.

Steier, W. H.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Tomkins, H. G.

H. G. Tomkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry (Wiley-Interscience, 1999).

Wedman, T. W.

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, and E. W. Kwock, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilkes, G. L.

C. G. Robertson and G. L. Wilkes, Polymer 39, 2129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) (1)

R. D. Miller and J. Michl, Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 89, 1359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. A. Hornak, T. W. Wedman, and E. W. Kwock, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2235 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Heimala, P. Katila, J. Aarnio, and A. Heinamaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 43, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polymer (1)

C. G. Robertson and G. L. Wilkes, Polymer 39, 2129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Eldada, Proc. SPIE 5225, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. G. Tomkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry (Wiley-Interscience, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a ring resonator device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index of PECVD 6M2S versus UV flux.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TM mode spectral measurements of a 100 μ m Si 3 N 4 ring resonator ( λ 0 , 1 = 1564.5 nm ) after 300 and 420   s of UV irradiation at 1.7 μ W cm 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental and theoretical resonance shifts for TE and TM modes.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ 0 = n ( π D m ) .
Δ λ = λ 0 , 2 λ 0 , 1 = n 2 ( π D m 2 ) n 1 ( π D m 1 ) .
Δ λ = λ 0 , 1 ( n 2 n 1 1 ) .

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