Abstract

We report on a compact interferometer for the water-window soft-x-ray range that is suitable for operation with laser-plasma sources. The interferometer consists of a single diffractive optical element that focuses impinging x rays to two focal spots. The light from these two secondary sources forms the interference pattern. The interferometer was operated with a liquid-nitrogen jet laser-plasma source at λ=2.88nm. Scalar wave-field propagation was used to simulate the interference pattern, showing good correspondence between theoretical and experimental results. The diffractive optical element can simultaneously be used as an imaging optic, and we demonstrate soft-x-ray microscopy with interferometric contrast enhancement of a phase object.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, and J. Susini, Opt. Commun. 193, 19 (2001).
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  8. A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 639 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Weitkamp, O. Dhez, B. Kaulich, and C. David, Proc. SPIE 5539, 195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

H. Daido, Rep. Prog. Phys. 65, 1513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, and J. Susini, Opt. Commun. 193, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. DiFabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 197, 268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 197, 268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1980).

Cabrini, S.

E. DiFabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. DiFabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cojoc, D.

Daido, H.

H. Daido, Rep. Prog. Phys. 65, 1513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

T. Weitkamp, O. Dhez, B. Kaulich, and C. David, Proc. SPIE 5539, 195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, O.

T. Weitkamp, O. Dhez, B. Kaulich, and C. David, Proc. SPIE 5539, 195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DiFabrizio, E.

E. DiFabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. DiFabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Facci, P.

Fields, C. H.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S. J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 197, 268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmberg, A.

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jansson, P. A. C.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaulich, B.

T. Weitkamp, O. Dhez, B. Kaulich, and C. David, Proc. SPIE 5539, 195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DiFabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, and J. Susini, Opt. Commun. 193, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. DiFabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Wieland, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, K. D.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, A. A.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nissen, R. P.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peuker, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 197, 268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Romanato, F.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. DiFabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rymell, L.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 197, 268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

M. Wieland, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Susini, J.

E. DiFabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, and J. Susini, Opt. Commun. 193, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. DiFabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sweatt, W. C.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, T.

T. Weitkamp, O. Dhez, B. Kaulich, and C. David, Proc. SPIE 5539, 195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, M.

M. Wieland, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Wieland, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. DiFabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, and J. Susini, Opt. Commun. 193, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. DiFabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 197, 268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1980).

Appl. Phys. B

M. Wieland, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. B 76, 885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. DiFabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 197, 268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, R. P. Nissen, S. J. Haney, C. H. Fields, W. C. Sweatt, and A. A. MacDowell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, and J. Susini, Opt. Commun. 193, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

T. Weitkamp, O. Dhez, B. Kaulich, and C. David, Proc. SPIE 5539, 195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

H. Daido, Rep. Prog. Phys. 65, 1513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1980).

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of the interferometer experiment. Inset, electron microscope image of the inner part of the DOE. Note the reversal of the zones in the left and right parts of the image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top, interferogram obtained from the CCD detector with an exposure time of 120 s . Dashed line, position of the line plot through the image that is shown below. The large black shadow is the central stop to block the 0th order.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One-dimensional simulation of the intensity in the focal plane of the DOE (top) and on the CCD (bottom). Dashed curves, results, for the perfect phase map; solid curves, for the binary manufactured pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image detail of a cracked 50 nm Si 3 N 4 membrane edge (arrow) covered with 400 nm of chromium. The exposure time was 60 s .

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