Abstract

We describe a novel microscopy technique for quantitative phase-contrast imaging of a transparent specimen. The technique is based on depth-resolved phase information provided by common path spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and can measure minute phase variations caused by changes in refractive index and thickness inside the specimen. We demonstrate subnanometer level path-length sensitivity and present images obtained on reflection from a known phase object and human epithelial cheek cells.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Creath, Prog. Opt. 26, 349 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

Ampem-Lassen, E.

Badizadegan, K.

Barty, A.

Baxter, G. W.

Bevilacqua, F.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Choma, M. A.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, Prog. Opt. 26, 349 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Creazzo, T. L.

Cuche, E.

Dasari, R. R.

Dave, D.

de Boer, J. F.

Depeursinge, C.

Diller, K. R.

Dragomir, N. M.

Ellerbee, A. K.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Sticker, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Lett. 27, 1126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, T. J.

Ghiglia, D. C.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Gotzinger, E.

Hahn, M. S.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Sticker, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Lett. 27, 1126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S. T.

Izatt, J. A.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Nugent, K. A.

Paganin, D.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Pritt, M. D.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Roberts, A.

Rylander, C.

Sattmann, H.

Schmetterer, L. F.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sticker, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Lett. 27, 1126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Wax, A.

Welch, A. J.

White, B. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yun, S. H.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

K. Creath, Prog. Opt. 26, 349 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the SD-OCPM system: SLD, superluminiscent diode; PCs, polarization controllers; I, isolator; 80 20 , 80 20 fiber-based beam splitter; G, transmission grating; ASL, three-element air-spaced lens; LSC, line scan camera; C, collimator; GS, galvanometer scanner; M, microscope objective. (b) Sample placed between a coverslip and a microscope slide. SD-OCPM measures phase distribution of a sample referenced to the top surface of the coverslip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probability distribution of measured phase sensitivity. The experiment was performed for 21 s , and the standard deviation was 25 pm . The measured SNR was 100.4 dB .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the letters MGH on a coverslip. (a) Image recorded by Nomarski microscope ( 10 × ; N.A., 0.3). The solid bar corresponds to 125 μ m . (b) Image taken by SD-OCPM. The gray scale represents the etch depth in nanometers. (c) Three-dimensional etch depth profile of the patterned coverslip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of human epithelial cheek cells. (a) Image recorded by a Nomarski microscope ( 10 × ; N.A., 0.3); the bar represents 20 μ m . (b) SD-OCPM image, along with the gray scale denoting the OPL in nanometers. (c) Surface plot of (b), showing optically thick structures such as nuclei and subcellular structures in the cell. The nuclei and subcellular structures are visible, and two cells seem to be overlapping, based on the presence of two nuclei in the image.

Equations (2)

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I ( k ) ( x , y ) = 2 [ R r R s ( z ) ] 1 2 S ( k ) cos ( 2 k Δ p ) ( x , y ) ,
ϕ ( z ) ( x , y ) = tan 1 { Im [ F ( z ) ] Re [ F ( z ) ] } = 2 2 π λ 0 Δ p ( z ) ,

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