Abstract

We present a fiber-based, low-coherence interferometer that significantly reduces phase noise by incorporating a second, narrowband, continuous-wave light source as a phase reference. By incorporating this interferometer into a Doppler OCT system, we demonstrate significant velocity noise reduction in reflective and scattering samples using processing techniques amenable to real-time implementation. We also demonstrate 90% suppression of velocity noise in a flow phantom.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J.C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. deBoer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Lett. 27, 1534 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Yazdanfar and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 2085 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 1st ed., P. J. Elving and J. D. Windefordner, eds., Vol. 83 of Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 1986), p. 656.
  12. C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 2981, 2 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Yang, A. Wax, M. S. Hahn, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 26, 1271 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (5)

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Lett. 27, 1534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, A. Wax, M. S. Hahn, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 26, 1271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1986 (1)

C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

Barton, J. K.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brecke, K. M.

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chen, Z. P.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. deBoer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J.C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobbold, R. S.C.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

de Boer, J. F.

de Haseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 1st ed., P. J. Elving and J. D. Windefordner, eds., Vol. 83 of Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 1986), p. 656.

deBoer, J. F.

Ding, Z.

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Gordon, M. L.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 1st ed., P. J. Elving and J. D. Windefordner, eds., Vol. 83 of Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 1986), p. 656.

Hahn, M. S.

Izatt, J. A.

S. Yazdanfar and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 2981, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Mok, A.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Ren, H.

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

Srinivas, S.

Ung-arunyawee, R.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J.C.

Vitkin, A. I.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wax, A.

Welch, A. J.

Westphal, V.

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. C.

C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S.

Yang, C.

Yang, V. X.D.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. deBoer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Zhao, K. M. Brecke, H. Ren, Z. Ding, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, R. S.C. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and A. I. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 208, 209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 3598, 168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 2981, 2 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 1st ed., P. J. Elving and J. D. Windefordner, eds., Vol. 83 of Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 1986), p. 656.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of both interferometers using a He–Ne laser (8 mW, 633 nm) and a low-coherence, broadband source (15 mW, 1310 nm, 47nm FWHM).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT (black) and phase-reference (red) signals (a and b) and their instantaneous velocities, and the velocity difference (c). The peaks in c arise from the intentional disturbances of the reference and sample mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase-reference triggered sampling with a–c, a reflector and d, a scattering medium in the sample arm. a, Graph of directly sampled interferogram fringes from 20 successive A-scans; b, phase-referenced resampled scans; c, average of the Fourier spectra of the 20 scans of a reflector both uncorrected (broad) and corrected (narrow); d, average of the Fourier spectra of the 20 scans of a scattering sample, both uncorrected (broad) and corrected (narrow).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of static and flowing scattering solution. a, 2 mm × 3 mm image of 5% Intralipid solution and velocity images before and after correction. b, 4 mm × 4 mm image of flowing Intralipid inside a glass capillary tube, and uncorrected and corrected velocity images. The horizontal lines in the DOCT images arise from induced phase noise and are reduced in the PRDOCT images.

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