Abstract

Microsphere resonators doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are explored as building blocks for coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs). The evolution of individual cavity modes into coherently coupled waveguide modes is studied using polarization-sensitive microphotoluminescence spectroscopy. To demonstrate the formation of multisphere photon states, we use a bent linear array of microresonators and probe the properties of the cavity photon field by the spatially and spectrally resolved measurement of the nanocrystal emission. Photon mode coupling is evidenced by the observed mode splitting and emission intensity distributions along the CROW structure.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Kazes, D. Y. Lewis, and U. Banin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 957 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, Opt. Lett. 24, 711 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 29, 626 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Opt. Lett. 28, 2437 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2686 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (6)

M. Kazes, D. Y. Lewis, and U. Banin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 29, 626 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Opt. Lett. 28, 2437 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, Opt. Lett. 24, 711 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anikeyev, V.

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Artemyev, M. V.

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashili, S. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banin, U.

M. Kazes, D. Y. Lewis, and U. Banin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, M.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dremin, A. A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franchak, J. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, K. A.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaponik, N.

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gutbrod, T.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hara, Y.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jimba, Y.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazes, M.

M. Kazes, D. Y. Lewis, and U. Banin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, P. A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kulakovskii, V. D.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Opt. Lett. 28, 2437 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

LeThomas, N.

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, D. Y.

M. Kazes, D. Y. Lewis, and U. Banin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A. B.

McCabe, E. M.

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, H.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Modinos, A.

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Möller, B.

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A.

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukaiyama, T.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Opt. Lett. 28, 2437 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perova, T.

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rakovich, Y. P.

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinecke, T. L.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A.

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberger, A. T.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Scherer, A.

Schöps, O.

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. D.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stefanou, N.

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Opt. Lett. 28, 2437 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wannemacher, R.

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yang, L.

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Kazes, D. Y. Lewis, and U. Banin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, M. V. Artemyev, B. Möller, N. LeThomas, V. Anikeyev, and O. Schöps, Appl. Phys. B 77, 469 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E. M. McCabe, J. F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of a six-resonator CROW structure measured at selected positions (see inset): (a) Weakly coupled TE-polarized CROW modes detected at off-axis positions. (b) Strongly coupled CROW modes detected at on-axis positions characterized by pronounced mode splitting. (c) Coupled CROW modes detected slightly apart from the on-axis positions with more than two peaks for detection on or close to the axis. The spectra in (d)–(f) were taken in the CROW arm below the apex sphere. (d) and (e) show pronounced mode splitting with more than two peaks for detection on or close to the axis. The spectrum in (f) illustrates the limit of only weak coupling, i.e., mode broadening without splitting like in (a), for an off-axis detection point. For comparison a calculated scattering spectrum for a single sphere is given in the bottom spectra. All the spectra are measured in a TE-sensitive detection scheme defined by the polarizer orientation in the detection beam path (for details see Ref. [15]).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization-sensitive mode maps of a six-sphere CROW structure (microsphere radius of R = 2.25 μ m ) forming an angle of 30°: (a) Integrated photoluminescence image. (b) Intensity map resonant to a weakly coupled TM-type mode at 565 nm. The coherent coupling is indicated by vanishing mode intensities along the CROW axis. (c) Intensity map resonant to a weakly coupled TE-type mode at 557 nm in TE-polarized detection. The coherent coupling is indicated by vanishing mode intensities at the microsphere intersection points. (d) Intensity map resonant to a strongly coupled, binding TE-type mode at 559 nm. The coherent coupling is indicated by enhanced mode intensities at the microsphere intersection points. See Fig. 1 for the spectral position of the selected modes. For the maps in (c) and (d) a polarizer in the detection beam path is oriented perpendicular to the CROW axis as indicated by an arrow.

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