Abstract

An OC-192 optical return-to-zero- (RZ-) formatted OR logic gate is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically interpreted for the first time to our knowledge. It is implemented by using a data format converter based on an optically injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode (FPLD) modulated in below-threshold condition. By injecting two non-return-to-zero data streams into the FPLD-based OR gate, a peak-power-equalized RZ-formatted OR logic data stream extinction ratio of >8dB is obtained from the FPLD with optimized rf-modulating and optical injecting powers of 24.7 and >4dBm, respectively. The highest data rate of up to 12.5Gbitss with a bit error rate (BER) of 1013 at a received optical power of >16dBm can be achieved by increasing the dc bias current of the FPLD-based RZ-formatted OR logic gate to 8mA. The OR-gated RZ data stream exhibits a duty cycle (pulse width) of 27% (27ps) and a 0.5dB power penalty at a BER of 109 at a data rate of 9.953Gbitss.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004

2000

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. J. Lee, K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Yim, IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 335 (1999).

1998

S. Sivaprakasam and R. Singh, Opt. Commun. 151, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, and R. J. Manning, Opt. Commun. 156, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

1996

N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, and K. A. Rauschenbach, Opt. Lett. 21, 1466 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. Li, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bendelli, G.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

Blow, K. J.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, and R. J. Manning, Opt. Commun. 156, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

Chen, J. H.

Choi, J. Y.

H. J. Lee, K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Yim, IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 335 (1999).

Coquelin, A.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dagens, B.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Danielsen, S. L.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durhuus, T.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fjelde, T.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaborit, F.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gambini, P.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

Guillemot, I.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

Idler, W.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

Janz, C.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joergensen, C.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, and R. J. Manning, Opt. Commun. 156, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

H. J. Lee, K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Yim, IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 335 (1999).

Kim, K.

H. J. Lee, K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Yim, IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 335 (1999).

Kloch, A.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee, K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Yim, IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 335 (1999).

Li, L.

L. Li, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, Y.-H.

Manning, R. J.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, and R. J. Manning, Opt. Commun. 156, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. S.

Poingt, F.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poustie, A. J.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, and R. J. Manning, Opt. Commun. 156, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Puelo, M.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

Raspollini, D.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

Rauschenbach, K. A.

Renaud, M.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

Singh, R.

S. Sivaprakasam and R. Singh, Opt. Commun. 151, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sivaprakasam, S.

S. Sivaprakasam and R. Singh, Opt. Commun. 151, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolfson, D.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wunstel, K.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

Yim, C. H.

H. J. Lee, K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Yim, IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 335 (1999).

Zucchelli, L.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

CSELT Tech. Rep.

L. Zucchelli, G. Bendelli, D. Raspollini, M. Puelo, P. Gambini, M. Schilling, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, CSELT Tech. Rep. 25, 357 (1997).

Electron. Lett.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, Electron. Lett. 36, 813 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. Li, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

H. J. Lee, K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Yim, IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 335 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Sivaprakasam and R. Singh, Opt. Commun. 151, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, and R. J. Manning, Opt. Commun. 156, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup and the truth table of the FPLD-based logic OR gate. AMP, rf amplifier; CDR, clock–data recovery unit; Ch1, input channel 1; Ch2, input channel 2; OBPF, optical bandpass filter; OC, optical coupler; PC, polarization controller; PD, phase detector; LF, loop filter; VCO, voltage-controlled oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Monitored data patterns: (a), (b) two input NRZ data streams; (c) a passively combined data stream; and (d) the output data stream (with the FPLD modulated under below-threshold conditions).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Power-dependent extinction ratio of the RZ-formatted data at rf-modulating powers of (i) 24.4 and (ii) 24.7 dBm . Inset, conceptual diagrams of the (i) power-dependent and (ii) power-independent OR gating operations. (b) P I curves and (c) P I slope of the rf-modulated and injection-locked FPLD. (d) Power-dependent (dotted curve) and power-independent (solid curve) logic OR output.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Injection-power-dependent BER versus received power of the RZ-formatted data stream at 9.953 Gbits s . The dashed line shows the BER of the back-to-back transmitted NRZ data stream. Inset, eye diagrams of the back-to-back NRZ output and RZ-formatted output, respectively.

Equations (1)

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Δ I th = e V Δ N τ s = e V Δ G τ s G N = e V τ s G N ( R sp τ ph S Lm + 4 α 2 k c 2 τ ph 2 S i ( 1 + α 2 ) S Lm ) ,

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