Abstract

We present a general approach for the measurement of the properties of optical pulses by exploiting features of the optical carrier domain. We demonstrate the principle of a novel balanced detection scheme that avoids the difficulties associated with homodyne detection in the baseband used in linear optical sampling methods so far. The residual timing instability of the repetition rate synchronization between mode-locked lasers is measured with the new detection technique.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Yamada, H. Ohta, and S. Nogiwa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Dou, A. Débarre, J.-L. Le Gouët, I. Lorgeré, and P. Tchénio, Appl. Opt. 33, 7980 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatmoko, K. Imai, T. Shimizu, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 24, 16 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, M. Engelbrecht, D. Wandt, and C. Fallnich, Opt. Express 12, 3178 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (4)

N. Yamada, H. Ohta, and S. Nogiwa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, M. Engelbrecht, D. Wandt, and C. Fallnich, Opt. Express 12, 3178 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 27, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Anderson, M. E.

M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boggavarapu, D.

M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Débarre, A.

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dou, K.

Engelbrecht, M.

Fallnich, C.

H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, M. Engelbrecht, D. Wandt, and C. Fallnich, Opt. Express 12, 3178 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Haverkamp, N.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hundertmark, H.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, M. Engelbrecht, D. Wandt, and C. Fallnich, Opt. Express 12, 3178 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, K.

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Karsson, M.

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, I.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

Kracht, D.

Krainer, L.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le Gouët, J.-L.

Leonhardt, U.

M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lorgeré, I.

Ma, L.-S.

Machida, S.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, D. F.

M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Munroe, M.

M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nogiwa, S.

N. Yamada, H. Ohta, and S. Nogiwa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Notcutt, M.

Ohta, H.

N. Yamada, H. Ohta, and S. Nogiwa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

Olsson, B.

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, R. K.

Shimizu, T.

Spühler, G. J.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, H. R.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, Y.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tchénio, P.

Teisset, C.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wandt, D.

Weingarten, K. J.

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Westlund, M.

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Widiyatmoko, B.

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, H. Ohta, and S. Nogiwa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, Appl. Phys. B 78, 321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 38, 225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, H. Ohta, and S. Nogiwa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. Olsson, M. Karsson, and P. A. Andrekson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. E. Anderson, M. Munroe, U. Leonhardt, D. Boggavarapu, D. F. McAlister, and M. G. Raymer, Proc. SPIE 2701, 142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison between pulse shapes simultaneously measured by nonlinear and linear optical sampling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. The gray shaded part was not implemented in this work but is discussed in the last paragraph. See text for further details.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Carrier beat spectra between repetition-rate-synchronized lasers 1 and 2 (a) before and (b) after feed-forward stabilization. Please notice the different frequency scales.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Timing instability σ x ( τ ) as a function of averaging time τ.

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