Abstract

We demonstrate a polarization-invariant liquid-crystal (LC) grating in an oppositely twisted and mutually orthogonal configuration. The polarization-invariant LC grating with high diffraction efficiency is fabricated using a single-masking process with two-step exposure of a linearly polarized ultraviolet light. It is found that the zeroth- and the first-order diffracted beams are linearly polarized and perpendicular to each other irrespective of the incident polarization for the phase retardation of mπ(m=integer).

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Ivanov and T. Eiju, Proc. SPIE 4580, 664 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Davis, J. Adachi, C. R. Fernandez-Pousa, and I. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 26, 587 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 42, 2513 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Livnat and O. Kafri, Opt. Lett. 6, 266 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Gori, Opt. Lett. 24, 584 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. L. Doucen and P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 151, 321 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2239 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. He and S. Sato, Appl. Opt. 37, 6755 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Wen, R. G. Petschek, and C. Rosenblatt, Appl. Opt. 41, 1246 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 2155 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2590 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).
  17. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  18. Data provided by E. Merck Company.
  19. C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, M.-S. Jung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Opt. 43, 1783 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J.-H. Park, C.-J. Yu, J. Kim, S.-Y. Chung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1918 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

J.-H. Park, C.-J. Yu, J. Kim, S.-Y. Chung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 42, 2513 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

2001 (3)

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ivanov and T. Eiju, Proc. SPIE 4580, 664 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Davis, J. Adachi, C. R. Fernandez-Pousa, and I. Moreno, Opt. Lett. 26, 587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

M. L. Doucen and P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 151, 321 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. He and S. Sato, Appl. Opt. 37, 6755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 2155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Adachi, J.

Biener, G.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bomzon, Z.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 2155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Chung, S.-Y.

J.-H. Park, C.-J. Yu, J. Kim, S.-Y. Chung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, F.

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

Doucen, M. L.

M. L. Doucen and P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 151, 321 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

M. Ivanov and T. Eiju, Proc. SPIE 4580, 664 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Pousa, C. R.

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Gori, F.

Hasman, E.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, Z.

Ivanov, M.

M. Ivanov and T. Eiju, Proc. SPIE 4580, 664 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jung, M.-S.

Jung, S.

Kafri, O.

Kim, J.

C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, M.-S. Jung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Opt. 43, 1783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, C.-J. Yu, J. Kim, S.-Y. Chung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 2155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, C.-R.

Lee, S.-D.

C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, M.-S. Jung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Opt. 43, 1783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, C.-J. Yu, J. Kim, S.-Y. Chung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Livnat, A.

Mazzulla, A.

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mo, T.-S.

Moreno, I.

Niv, A.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Pellat-Finet, P.

M. L. Doucen and P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 151, 321 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petschek, R. G.

Rosenblatt, C.

Russo, G.

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 2155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 2155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Titus, C. M.

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wen, B.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).

Yu, C.-J.

C.-J. Yu, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, M.-S. Jung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Opt. 43, 1783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, C.-J. Yu, J. Kim, S.-Y. Chung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J.-H. Park, C.-J. Yu, J. Kim, S.-Y. Chung, and S.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1918 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 31, 2155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Doucen and P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 151, 321 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Ivanov and T. Eiju, Proc. SPIE 4580, 664 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Data provided by E. Merck Company.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of our LC polarization grating with two oppositely twisted domains. At one substrate, the LC director is uniform along the x axis, and, at the other, two directors in the two domains make angles of ± 45 ° with respect to the x axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscopic textures of our LC polarization grating showing two alternating stripes in the absence of an applied voltage. Bright domains represent the twisted state parallel to the analyzer and dark domains represent those perpendicular to the analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction intensity profiles of our LC polarization grating as a function of the normalized distance at different applied voltages for three polarization states (a) 0°, (b) 45°, and (c) 90° of the incident light with respect to the x axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization states of the zeroth- and first-order diffracted beams for the incident polarizations (a) 0°, (b) 45°, and (c) 90° with respect to the x axis. Solid curves represent the least-squares fits of the data to the case of a linearly polarized light.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ± out = 1 2 [ exp ( i Φ ) cos θ in ± sin θ in exp ( i Φ ) cos θ in + sin θ in ] ,
E 0 diff = 1 2 [ exp ( i Φ ) cos θ in sin θ in ] ,
E 1 diff = i 2 π [ sin θ in exp ( i Φ ) cos θ in ] .

Metrics