Abstract

Four-wave mixing (FWM) in nonlinear germanosilicate fibers with GeO2 concentrations as high as 67 mol.% in the core is studied theoretically and experimentally. Large frequency shifts of 18753829cm1 are observed in the mixed-mode pump parametric process. The dependence of FWM phase matching on the GeO2 concentration, core diameter, and index profile is demonstrated. The 2.5% conversion efficiency of an 887 nm signal to a 1.3μm communication band is obtained at a 2 W cw pump power inside the fiber. ©2005 Optical Society of America

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.
  3. V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Fleming, Appl. Opt. 23, 4486 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Lin and M. A. Bosch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 479 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Dianov, E. A. Zakhidov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. JETP 56, 21 (1982).

2004 (1)

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

E. M. Dianov, E. A. Zakhidov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. JETP 56, 21 (1982).

1981 (1)

C. Lin and M. A. Bosch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 479 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, N.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, M. A.

C. Lin and M. A. Bosch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 479 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Bufetov, I. A.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, E. A. Zakhidov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. JETP 56, 21 (1982).

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Dvoyrin, V. V.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, J. C.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Fleming, W.

Guryanov, A. N.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Ishiguro, Y.

M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, S.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, H.

M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karasik, A. Ya.

E. M. Dianov, E. A. Zakhidov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. JETP 56, 21 (1982).

Kashivada, T.

M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwada, T.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. F.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Koh, J.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Koyano, Y.

M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenkov, D. V.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Likhachev, M. E.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Lin, C.

C. Lin and M. A. Bosch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 479 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

E. M. Dianov, E. A. Zakhidov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. JETP 56, 21 (1982).

Mashinsky, V. M.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazumder, P.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Medvedkov, O. I.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neustruev, V. B.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. M. Dianov, E. A. Zakhidov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. JETP 56, 21 (1982).

Salganskii, M. Yu.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Salgansky, M. Yu.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semjonov, S. L.

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

Shubin, A. V.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, S. A.

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, E. A.

E. M. Dianov, E. A. Zakhidov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. JETP 56, 21 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin and M. A. Bosch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 479 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

M. Onishi, T. Kashivada, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Koyano, M. Nishimura, and H. Kanamori, Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, V. V. Dvoyrin, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, E. M. Dianov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and M. Yu. Salgansky, Opt. Lett. 15, 2596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

E. M. Dianov, E. A. Zakhidov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. JETP 56, 21 (1982).

Other (1)

M. M. Bubnov, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Yu. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, J. C. Fajardo, D. V. Kuksenkov, J. Koh, and P. Mazumder, in Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (Rimini, Italy, 2003), p. 212.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Refractive core index profiles of fibers from Table 1 (n is the Si O 2 cladding index). (b) Dependence of the parametric frequency shift on the core diameter calculated for fibers presented in Table 1 and a pump wavelength at 1.064 μ m . The pump power is equally divided between the LP 01 and the LP 11 modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated dependences of the FWM frequency shift on the V parameter for different refractive-index profiles. The simulation was made for the typical design of refractive-index profile n ( r ) with a central dip [ n ( r ) = 0.999 n c at 0 < r a 0.14 ], graded profile ( n ( r ) = n c { 1 [ ( n c 2 n 2 ) n c 2 ] ( r a ) α } 1 2 at 0.14 < r a 1 ), and depressed cladding [ n ( r ) = 0.997 n at 1 < r a 4 ]. Here a is the core radius, n c is the value of the core index at maximum, α is the profile parameter, and n c n = 0.04 . The pump wavelength is 1.064 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stokes shift dependence on the V parameter for two graded-index fibers designed to have the same maximal frequency shift of 2017 cm 1 . Inset, effective-area dependence on the Ge O 2 concentration for the different α profiles calculated for this maximal Stokes shift.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fiber Parameters and FWM Frequency Shifts

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( Δ v ) = 2 π ( n c n ) [ d ( b 01 V ) d V d ( b 11 V ) d V ] Δ v ,
L c = π δ k = π δ [ f ( Δ v ) + Δ k ( Δ v ) ] ,
δ k = 2 π ( n c n ) [ d 2 ( b 01 V ) d V 2 d 2 ( b 11 V ) d V 2 ] Δ v V a δ a .

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