Abstract

We demonstrate a fiber Fabry–Perot (FFP) sensor that is capable of detecting subpicostrain signals, from 100 Hz and extending beyond 100 kHz, using the Pound–Drever–Hall (PDH) frequency locking technique. A low-power diode laser at 1550 nm is locked to a free-space reference cavity to suppress its free-running frequency noise, thereby stabilizing the laser. The stabilized laser is then used to interrogate a FFP sensor whose PDH error signal yields the instantaneous fiber strain.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 23, 24 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal, and A. Malvern, Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 205 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. E. Fisher, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, D. A. Jackson, L. R. Gavrilov, J. W. Hand, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Appl. Opt. 37, 34 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, and F. Amberg, Proc. SPIE 3860, 417 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. D. Black, Am. J. Phys. 69, 79 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. de Vine, J. D. Close, D. E. McClelland, and M. B. Gray, Opt. Lett. 30, 1219 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. H. Chow, I. C.M. Littler, G. de Vine, D. E. McClelland, and M. B. Gray, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1881 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 517, 154 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 517, 154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, and F. Amberg, Proc. SPIE 3860, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal, and A. Malvern, Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. D. Black, Am. J. Phys. 69, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal, and A. Malvern, Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amberg, F.

C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, and F. Amberg, Proc. SPIE 3860, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 23, 24 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal, and A. Malvern, Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Fisher, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, D. A. Jackson, L. R. Gavrilov, J. W. Hand, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Appl. Opt. 37, 34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Black, E. D.

E. D. Black, Am. J. Phys. 69, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borm, G.

C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, and F. Amberg, Proc. SPIE 3860, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chow, J. H.

Close, J. D.

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Day, T.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Vine, G.

Drever, R. W.P.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, N. E.

Ford, G. M.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gavrilov, L. R.

Gray, M. B.

Gustafson, E. K.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hand, J. W.

Hill, D. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Fisher, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, D. A. Jackson, L. R. Gavrilov, J. W. Hand, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Appl. Opt. 37, 34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lissak, B.

B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 23, 24 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Littler, I. C.M.

Malvern, A.

T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal, and A. Malvern, Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

Munley, A. J.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nash, P. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal, and A. Malvern, Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, S. F.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pannell, C. N.

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.

C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, and F. Amberg, Proc. SPIE 3860, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal, and A. Malvern, Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

B. Lissak, A. Arie, and M. Tur, Opt. Lett. 23, 24 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Fisher, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, D. A. Jackson, L. R. Gavrilov, J. W. Hand, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Appl. Opt. 37, 34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Fisher, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, D. A. Jackson, L. R. Gavrilov, J. W. Hand, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Appl. Opt. 37, 34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

E. D. Black, Am. J. Phys. 69, 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal, and A. Malvern, Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Chow, I. C.M. Littler, G. de Vine, D. E. McClelland, and M. B. Gray, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1881 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 517, 154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. Schmidt-Hattenberger, G. Borm, and F. Amberg, Proc. SPIE 3860, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, D. A. Jackson, D. J. Webb, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup showing the laser and the stabilization cavity together with the FFP sensor in the anechoic chamber. The 15 MHz signal generator was used to modulate the laser as well as to provide the local oscillator for demodulation electronics. The 216 Hz signal generator was used to generate the calibration signal for the FFP sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser prestabilization illustrated by (a) free-running and (b) closed-loop laser frequency noise, showing noise suppression by as much as 3 orders of magnitude in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflection spectrum for the FFP, showing nine supported modes, obtained by scanning the laser frequency by use of its PZT actuator. The apparent change in FSR is due to PZT nonlinearity. (b) Reflection power for the central high-finesse FFP mode; (c) its corresponding PDH error signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calibrated noise spectrum of the fiber Fabry–Perot sensor. (a) An external mechanical signal of 0.34 nm at 216 Hz was applied to the FFP by a PZT. The background noise floor is shown in (b), for which the noise was due to residual laser noise and fiber violin modes as well as direct electrical pickup. The plots are overlaid by dashed lines for strain references in the vertical scale.

Equations (2)

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S f , cl min ( Hz Hz ) = Δ ν c J 0 ( β ) h ν 8 η P i ,
strain ( ϵ Hz ) = Δ ν c h 8 η ν P i ,

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