Abstract

We fabricate microchannels in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation followed by etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid. We show a dramatic dependence of the etch rate on the laser polarization, spanning 2 orders of magnitude. We establish the existence of an energy-per-pulse threshold at which etching of the laser-modified zones becomes highly polarization selective. The enhanced selective etching is due to long-range, periodic, polarization-dependent nanostructures formed in the laser-modified material.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schülzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, Appl. Opt. 43, 4584 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehendale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Long-range periodic planar nanostructures produced in glass by femtosecond laser dielectric modification,” paper to be presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 22–27, 2005.
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

B. A.F. Puygranier and P. Dawson, Ultramicroscopy 85, 235 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bado, Ph.

Bellouard, Y.

Bhardwaj, R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Long-range periodic planar nanostructures produced in glass by femtosecond laser dielectric modification,” paper to be presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 22–27, 2005.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Corkum, P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Long-range periodic planar nanostructures produced in glass by femtosecond laser dielectric modification,” paper to be presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 22–27, 2005.

Corkum, P. B.

Dawson, P.

B. A.F. Puygranier and P. Dawson, Ultramicroscopy 85, 235 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dugan, M.

Giridhar, M. S.

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 28, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehendale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Long-range periodic planar nanostructures produced in glass by femtosecond laser dielectric modification,” paper to be presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 22–27, 2005.

Itoh, K.

Jiang, Y.

Juodkazis, S.

Kazansky, P.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khulbe, P.

Kuroda, D.

Li, Y.

Mansuripur, M.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Matsuo, S.

Mehendale, M.

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Nishii, J.

Peyghambarian, N.

Puygranier, B. A.F.

B. A.F. Puygranier and P. Dawson, Ultramicroscopy 85, 235 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D.

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Long-range periodic planar nanostructures produced in glass by femtosecond laser dielectric modification,” paper to be presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 22–27, 2005.

Rayner, D. M.

Said, A.

Schülzgen, A.

Seong, K.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehendale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 28, 1043 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Long-range periodic planar nanostructures produced in glass by femtosecond laser dielectric modification,” paper to be presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 22–27, 2005.

Taylor, R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Long-range periodic planar nanostructures produced in glass by femtosecond laser dielectric modification,” paper to be presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 22–27, 2005.

Taylor, R. S.

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, W.

Yamada, K.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

B. A.F. Puygranier and P. Dawson, Ultramicroscopy 85, 235 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, D. Rayner, and P. Corkum, “Long-range periodic planar nanostructures produced in glass by femtosecond laser dielectric modification,” paper to be presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2005, Baltimore, Md., May 22–27, 2005.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. θ is the angle between the writing direction (x axis) and the electric vector of the fs beam, E. The light propagates along the z axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical images of the microchannels in a Suprasil sample after 480 min of etching in a 2.5% aqueous solution of HF acid: (a) In each panel corresponding to a different energy-per-pulse, E p , the channels from top to bottom are shown for θ = 0 ° , 45°, 90°. (b) Magnified images of microchannels fabricated at low E p to determine the etch rate ratio from cone angle ϕ (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Etching of the fs-laser-modified zones for different polarizations of the writing beam as a function of energy-per-pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)–(c) Top view ( x y -plane) SEM images of long-range periodic nanostructures formed along the writing direction for different θ at E p = 300 nJ . (d) E p = 900 nJ . The structures were revealed after 20 min of etching in a 0.5% aqueous solution of HF.

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