Abstract

The luminescence of AgBr, AgCl, and AgClBr crystals and fibers doped with Pr3+ ions was investigated in the middle-infrared spectral range. We measured the absorption, emission, and kinetic parameters over a broad temperature range. Strong luminescence in the spectral range 45.5μm was observed for the first time to our knowledge in silver halide crystals and fibers at room temperature. No noticeable differences were observed between the crystals and the fibers. We calculated various optical parameters for Pr:AgBr and Pr:AgCl crystals, using the Judd–Ofelt approximation. Both the measured results and the calculated parameters indicate that these doped crystals and fibers would be good candidates for the fabrication of mid-IR solid-state lasers or fiber lasers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Reisberg and M. Weber, in Progress in Optics XIV, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1976), pp. 91–156.
  2. J. Ganem, S. Browman, and B. Feldman, J. Lumin. 58, 298 (1994).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Schweizer, D. Brady, and D. Hewak, Opt. Express 1, 102 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Browman, J. Ganem, B. Feldman, and A. Kueny, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 36, 7708 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K Binnemansy and C. Görller-Walrand, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 1167 (1998).

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

K Binnemansy and C. Görller-Walrand, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 1167 (1998).

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

S. Browman, L. Shaw, B. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Browman, J. Ganem, B. Feldman, and A. Kueny, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, S. Browman, and B. Feldman, J. Lumin. 58, 298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. Gal and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, and N. Uhle, Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Barkay, N.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Binnemansy, K

K Binnemansy and C. Görller-Walrand, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 1167 (1998).

Bootz, B

B Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, and N. Uhle, Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S. R.

Brady, D.

Browman, S.

S. Browman, L. Shaw, B. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Browman, J. Ganem, B. Feldman, and A. Kueny, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, S. Browman, and B. Feldman, J. Lumin. 58, 298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bunimovich, D.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 36, 7708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, B.

S. Browman, L. Shaw, B. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, S. Browman, and B. Feldman, J. Lumin. 58, 298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Browman, J. Ganem, B. Feldman, and A. Kueny, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, B. J.

Gal, D.

D. Gal and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, J.

S. Browman, L. Shaw, B. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Browman, J. Ganem, B. Feldman, and A. Kueny, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, S. Browman, and B. Feldman, J. Lumin. 58, 298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

German, A.

Görller-Walrand, C.

K Binnemansy and C. Görller-Walrand, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 1167 (1998).

Hewak, D.

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

L. Nagli, A. German, and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 39, 5070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 36, 7708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Gal and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

Kristianpoller, N.

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kueny, A.

S. Browman, J. Ganem, B. Feldman, and A. Kueny, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Levite, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Margalit, E.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moser, F.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nagli, L.

L. Nagli, A. German, and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 39, 5070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 36, 7708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Paiss, I.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reisberg, L.

L. Reisberg and M. Weber, in Progress in Optics XIV, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1976), pp. 91–156.

Sa’ar, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

Searles, S. K.

Shaw, L.

S. Browman, L. Shaw, B. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shmilevich, A.

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uhle, N.

B Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, and N. Uhle, Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Von Der Osten, W.

B Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, and N. Uhle, Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

L. Reisberg and M. Weber, in Progress in Optics XIV, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1976), pp. 91–156.

Zur, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. Browman, J. Ganem, B. Feldman, and A. Kueny, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2925 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Browman, L. Shaw, B. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Gal and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. Ganem, S. Browman, and B. Feldman, J. Lumin. 58, 298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

K Binnemansy and C. Görller-Walrand, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 1167 (1998).

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

B Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, and N. Uhle, Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, and A. Katzir, Proc. SPIE 1228, 128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Reisberg and M. Weber, in Progress in Optics XIV, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1976), pp. 91–156.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of a Pr : AgCl crystal of thickness 3.8 mm. The Pr concentration is 600 parts in 10 6 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminescence spectra of Pr : AgBr crystal at room temperature (dashed curve) and at 20 K (solid curve) under cw excitation by a 1.48 μ m diode laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Luminescence spectra of Pr : AgCl crystal at room temperature (solid curve) and at 20 K (dashed curve) and of Pr : AgCl 40 Br 60 fiber at room temperature (dotted–dashed curve), under pulsed excitation by a Ho : YAG laser ( 2.094 μ m ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Low-energy part of the energy-level scheme of Pr 3 + ions, showing the excitation and the luminescence transitions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Branching Ratios, Lifetimes, and Quantum Efficiencies of Selected Transitions for Pr : AgBr and Pr : AgCl

Tables Icon

Table 2 Judd–Ofelt Parameters of Pr : AgBr and Pr : AgCl Crystals

Equations (1)

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σ = λ 4 8 π n 2 c Δ λ A J J .

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