Abstract

We report on optical levitation and manipulation of microscopic particles that are stuck on a glass surface with pulsed optical tweezers. An infrared pulse laser at 1.06μm was used to generate a large gradient force (up to 109N) within a short duration (45μs) that overcomes the adhesive interaction between the particles and the glass surface. Then a low-power continuous-wave diode laser at 785nm was used to capture and manipulate the levitated particle. We have demonstrated that both stuck dielectric and biological micrometer-sized particles, including polystyrene beads, yeast cells, and Bacillus cereus bacteria, can be levitated and manipulated with this technique. We measured the single-pulse levitation efficiency for 2.0μm polystyrene beads as a function of the pulse energy and of the axial displacement from the stuck particle to the pulsed laser focus, which was as high as 88%.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. A. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y.-Q. Li, Opt. Lett. 27, 249 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Xie and Y.-Q. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 951 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  14. R. Hobza, M. Lengerova, H. Cernohorska, J. Rubes, and B. Vyskot, Chromosome Res. 12, 245 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, H. Liang, and B. Tromberg, in Methods in Cell Biology, M. P. Sheetz, ed. (Academic, 1998), Vol. 55, pp. 71–98.
    [CrossRef]

2004

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hobza, M. Lengerova, H. Cernohorska, J. Rubes, and B. Vyskot, Chromosome Res. 12, 245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, C. T. Brown, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Express 12, 3011 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, Nature 421, 423 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie and Y.-Q. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y.-Q. Li, Opt. Lett. 27, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Schermelleh, S. Thalhammer, and W. Heckl, BioTechniques 27, 362 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

Agate, B.

Arlt, J.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, in Methods in Cell Biology, M. P. Sheetz, ed. (Academic, 1998), Vol. 55, pp. 1–27.
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, H. Liang, and B. Tromberg, in Methods in Cell Biology, M. P. Sheetz, ed. (Academic, 1998), Vol. 55, pp. 71–98.
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. T.

Bryant, Z.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, Nature 421, 423 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustamante, C.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, Nature 421, 423 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cernohorska, H.

R. Hobza, M. Lengerova, H. Cernohorska, J. Rubes, and B. Vyskot, Chromosome Res. 12, 245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chadd, E. H.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Dholakia, K.

B. Agate, C. T. Brown, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Express 12, 3011 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinno, M. A.

Dumont, S.

B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckl, W.

L. Schermelleh, S. Thalhammer, and W. Heckl, BioTechniques 27, 362 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hobza, R.

R. Hobza, M. Lengerova, H. Cernohorska, J. Rubes, and B. Vyskot, Chromosome Res. 12, 245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lengerova, M.

R. Hobza, M. Lengerova, H. Cernohorska, J. Rubes, and B. Vyskot, Chromosome Res. 12, 245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-Q.

C. A. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y.-Q. Li, Opt. Lett. 27, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie and Y.-Q. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, H. Liang, and B. Tromberg, in Methods in Cell Biology, M. P. Sheetz, ed. (Academic, 1998), Vol. 55, pp. 71–98.
[CrossRef]

Liou, G. F.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liphardt, J.

B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, A. D.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onoa, B.

B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, L.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rief, M.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubes, J.

R. Hobza, M. Lengerova, H. Cernohorska, J. Rubes, and B. Vyskot, Chromosome Res. 12, 245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schermelleh, L.

L. Schermelleh, S. Thalhammer, and W. Heckl, BioTechniques 27, 362 (1999).
[PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

B. Agate, C. T. Brown, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Express 12, 3011 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. M.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. A.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, Nature 421, 423 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spudich, J. A.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadir, Y.

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, H. Liang, and B. Tromberg, in Methods in Cell Biology, M. P. Sheetz, ed. (Academic, 1998), Vol. 55, pp. 71–98.
[CrossRef]

Thalhammer, S.

L. Schermelleh, S. Thalhammer, and W. Heckl, BioTechniques 27, 362 (1999).
[PubMed]

Tinoco, I.

B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B.

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, H. Liang, and B. Tromberg, in Methods in Cell Biology, M. P. Sheetz, ed. (Academic, 1998), Vol. 55, pp. 71–98.
[CrossRef]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vyskot, B.

R. Hobza, M. Lengerova, H. Cernohorska, J. Rubes, and B. Vyskot, Chromosome Res. 12, 245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C. A.

C. A. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y.-Q. Li, Opt. Lett. 27, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie and Y.-Q. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. A. Xie and Y.-Q. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BioTechniques

L. Schermelleh, S. Thalhammer, and W. Heckl, BioTechniques 27, 362 (1999).
[PubMed]

Chromosome Res.

R. Hobza, M. Lengerova, H. Cernohorska, J. Rubes, and B. Vyskot, Chromosome Res. 12, 245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, Nature 421, 423 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Onoa, S. Dumont, J. Liphardt, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, Science 292, 1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Peterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Ashkin, in Methods in Cell Biology, M. P. Sheetz, ed. (Academic, 1998), Vol. 55, pp. 1–27.
[CrossRef]

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, H. Liang, and B. Tromberg, in Methods in Cell Biology, M. P. Sheetz, ed. (Academic, 1998), Vol. 55, pp. 71–98.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of pulsed optical tweezers: DM, dichroic mirror; PH, pinhole; BS, beam splitter. (b) Backscattered light intensity recorded as a struck polystyrene bead is levitated with an IR pulse and jumps into the cw trap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Levitation and manipulation of a stuck polystyrene bead. (a) Two beads were initially stuck on the coverslip. (b) The beads were defocused with z = 8 μ m . (c) The marked bead was levitated with an IR pulse and jumped into the cw trap. (d) The levitated bead was trapped while the stage was moved.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-pulse levitation efficiency versus (a) pulse energy (in microjoules) at z = 8 μ m ; (b) initial distance z (with a constant pulse energy of 385 μ J ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Levitation and manipulation of (a)–(c) a stuck yeast cell and (d)–(f) a Bacillus cereus bacterium.

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