Abstract

We report the fabrication of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO2 laser with a surface deformation technique and a point-by-point method. Due to periodicities that are structurally induced by a heat source and refractive-index modulation caused by a perturbational photoelastic effect, the results of thermal testing show a grating temperature coefficient of 28pm°C at a range from 22 to 180 °C, indicating that the band rejections of the grating that is formed remain unchanged in their resonant strengths even at temperatures up to the fictive point of fiberglass. It is found for what is believed to be the first time that such a grating possesses an anomalous strain behavior of resonance with 1.52×104dBμϵ for the right notch and 7.05×105dBμϵ for the left notch.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Humbert and A. Malki, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. R. Qian and J. F. Chen, Electron. Lett. 34, 1132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Meter, and A. M. Vengsarker, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 58 (1996).

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

Askins, C. G.

Bashkansky, M.

Bergano, N. S.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 58 (1996).

Chen, J. F.

J. R. Qian and J. F. Chen, Electron. Lett. 34, 1132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chong, J.-H.

Davidson, C. R.

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Meter, and A. M. Vengsarker, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 58 (1996).

Friebele, E. J.

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Meter, and A. M. Vengsarker, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Meter, and A. M. Vengsarker, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.-G.

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert and A. Malki, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 58 (1996).

Ke, H.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Meter, and A. M. Vengsarker, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, S. B.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 58 (1996).

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

Malki, A.

G. Humbert and A. Malki, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Meter, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Meter, and A. M. Vengsarker, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Peng, J. H.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

Qian, J. R.

J. R. Qian and J. F. Chen, Electron. Lett. 34, 1132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, M. K.

Shum, P.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 58 (1996).

Tsai, T.-E.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 58 (1996).

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengsarker, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Meter, and A. M. Vengsarker, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

Zhu, Y.

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Meter, and A. M. Vengsarker, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Qian and J. F. Chen, Electron. Lett. 34, 1132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Low Temp. Phys. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 58 (1996).

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Humbert and A. Malki, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectra of the LPG (gray curve) and π-PS-LPG (black curve) at the grating center. Insets, microphotograph of the PS-LPG appearance (left), schematic of PS-LPG fabrication (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of the transmission spectra of the MPS-LPG with multiple π 2 -phase shifts at the 9th, 10th, and 11th periods (the spectra from the 17th to the 20th period were measured from the same grating during its fabrication in situ, and the total number of periods is 20).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the transmission spectra of the MPS-LPG with multiple 3 π 2 -phase shifts at the 4th, 11th, and 12th periods (the spectra from the 14th to the 21st period were measured from the same grating during its fabrication in situ, and the total number of periods is 21).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of two notches of π 3 -PS-LPG at a temperature range of 22°C–180°C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra of two notches of 2 π 3 -PS-LPG under differing applied strain. Inset, optical micrograph of a fiber fracture in the deformed region under a critical applied strain of 2.76 % ϵ .

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