Abstract

We investigated the current–voltage characteristics and responsivity of photodiodes fabricated with silicon that was microstructured by use of femtosecond-laser pulses in a sulfur-containing atmosphere. The photodiodes that we fabricated have a broad spectral response ranging from the visible to the near infrared (4001600nm). The responsivity depends on substrate doping, microstructuring fluence, and annealing temperature. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100AW at 1064nm, 2 orders of magnitude higher than for standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the bandgap we obtained responsivities as high as 50mAW at 1330nm and 35mAW at 1550nm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Loudon, P. Hiskett, G. Buller, R. Carline, D. Herbert, W. Y. Leong, and J. Rarity, Opt. Lett. 27, 219 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-K. Lee, C.-H. Chu, Y.-H. Wang, and S. M. Sze, Opt. Lett. 26, 160 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Carey, “Femtosecond-laser microstructuring of silicon for novel optoelectronic devices,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 1981).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Aziz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Loudon, P. Hiskett, G. Buller, R. Carline, D. Herbert, W. Y. Leong, and J. Rarity, Opt. Lett. 27, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M.-K. Lee, C.-H. Chu, Y.-H. Wang, and S. M. Sze, Opt. Lett. 26, 160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. J. Aziz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, M. J.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Aziz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bensahel, D.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boucard, P.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G.

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campidelli, Y.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Carey, “Femtosecond-laser microstructuring of silicon for novel optoelectronic devices,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2004).

Carline, R.

Chu, C.-H.

Colace, L.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elkurdi, M.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. M.

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Génin, F. Y.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gothoskar, P.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herbert, D.

Hiskett, P.

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karger, A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kermarrec, O.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-K.

Leong, W. Y.

Levinson, J. A.

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, A.

Luan, H.-C.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raissi, F.

F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J.

Ripamonti, G.

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Girons, G.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheeni, N. A.

F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

M.-K. Lee, C.-H. Chu, Y.-H. Wang, and S. M. Sze, Opt. Lett. 26, 160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 1981).

Wada, K.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-H.

Warrender, J. M.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R. J.

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Metall. Mater. Trans. A (1)

M. J. Aziz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 1981).

J. E. Carey, “Femtosecond-laser microstructuring of silicon for novel optoelectronic devices,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Scanning-electron micrograph of a silicon surface microstructured with 100 fs laser pulses at a fluence of 4 kJ m 2 . The micrograph is at a 45° angle to the surface. b, Transmission-electron micrograph of a thin cross section of the sample in a. The uppermost few hundred nanometers of each microstructure is a highly disordered, nanocrystalline silicon layer. c, Schematic diagram of a microstructured silicon photodiode. The disordered surface layer is approximately 300 nm thick, and the substrate wafer is 250 μ m thick.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence on annealing temperature of the current–voltage characteristics of silicon samples microstructured with 100 fs laser pulses at a fluence of 4 kJ m 2 . Rectification improves with increasing annealing temperature. Each sample was annealed for 30 min .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence on annealing temperature of the responsivity of microstructured silicon photodiodes. Each sample was microstructured with 100 fs laser pulses at a fluence of 4 kJ m 2 and annealed 30 min . The responsivity of a commercial silicon P-I-N photodiode is shown for reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence on laser fluence of the responsivity of microstructured silicon photodiodes. Each sample was annealed at 825 K for 30 min .

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