Abstract

We investigated the current–voltage characteristics and responsivity of photodiodes fabricated with silicon that was microstructured by use of femtosecond-laser pulses in a sulfur-containing atmosphere. The photodiodes that we fabricated have a broad spectral response ranging from the visible to the near infrared (4001600nm). The responsivity depends on substrate doping, microstructuring fluence, and annealing temperature. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100AW at 1064nm, 2 orders of magnitude higher than for standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the bandgap we obtained responsivities as high as 50mAW at 1330nm and 35mAW at 1550nm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Loudon, P. Hiskett, G. Buller, R. Carline, D. Herbert, W. Y. Leong, and J. Rarity, Opt. Lett. 27, 219 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-K. Lee, C.-H. Chu, Y.-H. Wang, and S. M. Sze, Opt. Lett. 26, 160 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Carey, “Femtosecond-laser microstructuring of silicon for novel optoelectronic devices,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 1981).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Aziz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Loudon, P. Hiskett, G. Buller, R. Carline, D. Herbert, W. Y. Leong, and J. Rarity, Opt. Lett. 27, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Lee, C.-H. Chu, Y.-H. Wang, and S. M. Sze, Opt. Lett. 26, 160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. J. Aziz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, M. J.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Aziz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bensahel, D.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boucard, P.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G.

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campidelli, Y.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Carey, “Femtosecond-laser microstructuring of silicon for novel optoelectronic devices,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2004).

Carline, R.

Chu, C.-H.

Colace, L.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elkurdi, M.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. M.

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Génin, F. Y.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gothoskar, P.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herbert, D.

Hiskett, P.

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karger, A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kermarrec, O.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-K.

Leong, W. Y.

Levinson, J. A.

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, A.

Luan, H.-C.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raissi, F.

F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J.

Ripamonti, G.

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Girons, G.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheeni, N. A.

F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

M.-K. Lee, C.-H. Chu, Y.-H. Wang, and S. M. Sze, Opt. Lett. 26, 160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 1981).

Wada, K.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-H.

Warrender, J. M.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R. J.

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. A 70, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Génin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Elkurdi, P. Boucard, S. Sauvage, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, D. Bensahel, G. Saint-Girons, and I. Sagnes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 509 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, G. Ripamonti, and S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. J. Younkin, J. E. Carey, E. Mazur, J. A. Levinson, and C. M. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Metall. Mater. Trans. A (1)

M. J. Aziz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

F. Raissi and N. A. Sheeni, Sens. Actuators A 104, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 1981).

J. E. Carey, “Femtosecond-laser microstructuring of silicon for novel optoelectronic devices,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Scanning-electron micrograph of a silicon surface microstructured with 100 fs laser pulses at a fluence of 4 kJ m 2 . The micrograph is at a 45° angle to the surface. b, Transmission-electron micrograph of a thin cross section of the sample in a. The uppermost few hundred nanometers of each microstructure is a highly disordered, nanocrystalline silicon layer. c, Schematic diagram of a microstructured silicon photodiode. The disordered surface layer is approximately 300 nm thick, and the substrate wafer is 250 μ m thick.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence on annealing temperature of the current–voltage characteristics of silicon samples microstructured with 100 fs laser pulses at a fluence of 4 kJ m 2 . Rectification improves with increasing annealing temperature. Each sample was annealed for 30 min .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence on annealing temperature of the responsivity of microstructured silicon photodiodes. Each sample was microstructured with 100 fs laser pulses at a fluence of 4 kJ m 2 and annealed 30 min . The responsivity of a commercial silicon P-I-N photodiode is shown for reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence on laser fluence of the responsivity of microstructured silicon photodiodes. Each sample was annealed at 825 K for 30 min .

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