Abstract

The output of a mode-locked femtosecond laser is used for precision single-photon spectroscopy of Cs133 in an atomic beam. By changing the laser’s repetition rate, the cesium D1(6sS1226pP122) and D2(6sS1226pP322) transitions are detected and the optical frequencies are measured with accuracy similar to that obtained with a cw laser. Control of the femtosecond laser repetition rate by use of the atomic fluorescence is also implemented, thus realizing a simple cesium optical clock.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Cundiff and J. Ye, eds., Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation and Applications (Springer, 2004).
  2. E. V. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotaev, Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 4, 2189 (1977).
  3. R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Bartels and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 27, 1839 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042505 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Gerginov, K. Calkins, C. E. Tanner, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg “Optical frequency measurements of 6sS1?22?6pP1?22 transition in a Cs133 atomic beam using a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  10. R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1977

E. V. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotaev, Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 4, 2189 (1977).

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bagayev, S. N.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baklanov, E. V.

E. V. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotaev, Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 4, 2189 (1977).

Bartels, A.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 27, 1839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Gerginov, K. Calkins, C. E. Tanner, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg “Optical frequency measurements of 6sS1?22?6pP1?22 transition in a Cs133 atomic beam using a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Bell, A. S.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Calkins, K.

V. Gerginov, K. Calkins, C. E. Tanner, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg “Optical frequency measurements of 6sS1?22?6pP1?22 transition in a Cs133 atomic beam using a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Chebotaev, V. P.

E. V. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotaev, Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 4, 2189 (1977).

Diddams, S.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Gerginov, K. Calkins, C. E. Tanner, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg “Optical frequency measurements of 6sS1?22?6pP1?22 transition in a Cs133 atomic beam using a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Diddams, S. A.

Eckstein, J.

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Felinto, D.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, A. I.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Gerginov, K. Calkins, C. E. Tanner, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg “Optical frequency measurements of 6sS1?22?6pP1?22 transition in a Cs133 atomic beam using a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Hänsch, T. W.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 27, 1842 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Gerginov, K. Calkins, C. E. Tanner, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg “Optical frequency measurements of 6sS1?22?6pP1?22 transition in a Cs133 atomic beam using a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lawall, J. R.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marian, A.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevsky, A. Yu.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramond, T. M.

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skvortsov, M. N.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snadden, M. J.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, M. C.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, C. E.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Gerginov, K. Calkins, C. E. Tanner, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg “Optical frequency measurements of 6sS1?22?6pP1?22 transition in a Cs133 atomic beam using a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Teets, R.

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von Zanthier, J.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, M.

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zucco, M.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. Holzwarth, A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. von Zanthier, H. Walther, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Appl. Phys. B 73, 269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow)

E. V. Baklanov and V. P. Chebotaev, Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 4, 2189 (1977).

Opt. Commun.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 125, 70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, Science 306, 2063 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

V. Gerginov, K. Calkins, C. E. Tanner, A. Bartels, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg “Optical frequency measurements of 6sS1?22?6pP1?22 transition in a Cs133 atomic beam using a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

S. Cundiff and J. Ye, eds., Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation and Applications (Springer, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Femtosecond laser spectrum used for high-resolution spectroscopy of the Cs D 1 and D 2 lines at 895 and 852 nm , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence of the (a) D 1 line and (b) D 2 line measured as a function of the femtosecond laser repetition rate. The laser power is P = 14 nW per component for (a) the D 1 line and P = 1.5 nW per component for (b) the D 2 line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute frequency of the 6 s S 1 2 2 ( F = 3 ) 6 p P 1 2 2 ( F = 4 ) transition, with the standard deviation for each measurement given as an error bar. (Each measurement requires approximately 15 min to complete.) Previously measured optical frequency[9] (equal to 335 121 730 483.2 kHz ) has been subtracted from the data. The shaded area represents the uncertainty in the previous frequency measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Error signal used to lock the femtosecond laser repetition rate. A specific FLFC component excites the F g = 3 F e = 2 transition of the Cs D 2 line. The rf synthesizer frequency controlling the FLFC repetition rate was modulated at a rate of 27 Hz with a 15 Hz depth. Phase detection was used with 5 mV sensitivity and a 1 s time constant. (b) Allan deviation calculated from the data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Frequencies of 6 s S 1 2 2 6 p P 1 2 , 3 2 2 Transitions

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