Abstract

We report an approach to achieving continuous focus tracking and a depth-independent transverse resolution for real-time optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Continuous real-time focus tracking is permitted by use of a lateral-priority image acquisition sequence in which the depth-scanning rate is equivalent to the imaging frame rate. Real-time OCT imaging with continuous focus tracking is performed at 1  frames by reciprocal translation of a rapid lateral-scanning miniature imaging probe (e.g., an endoscope). The optical path length in the reference arm is scanned synchronously to ensure that the coherence gate coincides with the imaging beam focus. The image quality improvement is experimentally demonstrated by imaging a tissue phantom embedded with polystyrene microspheres and rabbit esophageal tissues.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Ohmi, T. Kurata, M. Sekimoto, and M. Haruna, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 845 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D.V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. X.D. Yang, N. Munce, J. Pekar, M. L. Gordon, S. Lo, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Lett. 29, 1754 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. M. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. C. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. D. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 1763 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Express 7, 292 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. C. Chen and X. D. Li, Opt. Express 12, 5968 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 2258 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

Chen, Z. P.

Cobb, M. J.

Dave, D.

Dickensheets, L. D.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D.V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gordon, L. M.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D.V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, M. L.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haruna, M.

M. Ohmi, T. Kurata, M. Sekimoto, and M. Haruna, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 2258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Himmer, A. P.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D.V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Jackson, D. A.

Kartner, F. X.

Kimmey, M. B.

Kurata, T.

M. Ohmi, T. Kurata, M. Sekimoto, and M. Haruna, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lexer, F.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. M.

Lo, S.

Marcon, N. E.

Milner, T. E.

Molebny, S.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Munce, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Ohmi, M.

M. Ohmi, T. Kurata, M. Sekimoto, and M. Haruna, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pekar, J.

Pitris, C.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D.V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

Sattmann, H.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekimoto, M.

M. Ohmi, T. Kurata, M. Sekimoto, and M. Haruna, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Sticker, M.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Vitkin, I. A.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D.V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. X.D. Yang, N. Munce, J. Pekar, M. L. Gordon, S. Lo, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Lett. 29, 1754 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Yang, V. X.D.

Yang, X. D.V.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D.V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

M. Ohmi, T. Kurata, M. Sekimoto, and M. Haruna, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D.V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Commun. 232, 123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber-optic OCT system with the waveforms used to drive the OPL scanning in the reference arm shown in (a) and (b). (a) Linear ramp used for depth scanning in the non-focus-tracking images. (b) Waveform to compensate for the refractive-index mismatch and tracking the coherence gate in the focus-tracking images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of focus shift by d 2 in medium 2 when the optics translates by d 1 in medium 1. n 1 and n 2 are the respective refractive indices of the two media.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT images of a gelatin tissue phantom embedded with 25 μ m polystyrene microspheres. The two images were collected (a) without and (b) with continuous focus tracking under the same imaging conditions. In (a) the particles became elongated outside the focal zone, whereas in (b) the particle size was approximately maintained throughout the entire imaging depth. The images were collected over 95% of the circular scan with a 1.31 μ m source and have a size of 1260 × 1160   pixels ( 1.55 mm × 1.26 mm , transverse × depth ). The incident power on the phantom was 2.85 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT images of freshly excised rabbit esophagus. The two images were collected (a) without and (b) with continuous focus tracking at a 1 Hz frame rate. Along with the layers in the focus-tracking image (b), the structures deeper within the esophagus can be more clearly distinguished. The images were collected over 95% of the circular scan with an 825 nm light source. The incident power on the sample was 9.3 mW. The image size is 820 × 730   pixels ( 1.20 mm × 0.43 mm , transverse × depth ). E, epithelium; LP, lamina propria; MM, muscularis mucosa.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ OPL = [ n 2 ( n 2 2 NA 2 n 1 2 NA 2 ) 1 2 n 1 ] d 1 ,
Δ OPL ( n 2 2 1 ) d 1 .

Metrics