Abstract

We have prepared and characterized several lanthanide ion complexes of multidentate ligands or chelates in an effort to develop new upconverting luminescent labels that can be immune to autofluorescence and photobleaching. This study has involved the characterization of various chelates of Nd, Er, and Tm with respect to relative luminescent efficiency and excited-state lifetimes and explored various two-photon stepwise excitation mechanisms. Using peak laser powers near 100kW, the upconversion emissions of Nd in Nd(EDTA)25 at 386nm, Er in Er(DPA)33 at 550nm, and Tm in Tm(DPA)33 at 480nm, at levels of 1012  moles can be detected.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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