Abstract

We show how optical encryption methods based on double random phase keys are vulnerable to an organized attack of the chosen-ciphertext type. The decryption key can be easily obtained by an opponent who has repeated access to either the encryption or decryption machines. However, we have also devised a solution that prevents the attack. Our results cast doubts on the present security of these techniques.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 20, 767 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Towghi, B. Javidi, and Z. Luo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1915 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. W. Han, C. S. Park, D. H. Ryu, and E. S. Kim, Opt. Eng. 38, 47 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, Opt. Lett. 25, 566 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Cam-Winget, R. Housley, and D. Wagner, Commun. ACM 46, 35 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Bellare, A. Desai, D. Pointcheval, and P. Rogaway, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1462, 26 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Katz and B. Schneier, presented at the Ninth Annual USENIX Security Symposium, Denver, Colo., August 14–17, 2000, available at http://www.schneier.com/paper-chotext.pdf.
  9. K. Jallad, J. Katz, and B. SchneierLect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2433, 90 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 38, 6785 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 24, 762 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 38, 7288 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption using partial information,” U.S. patent 6,519,340 (February 11, 2003).
  14. B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption,” U.S. patent 6,002,773 (December 14, 1999).
  15. B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption,” U.S. patent 5,903,648 (May 11, 1999).
  16. B. Javidi and O. Matoba, “Method and apparatus for secure ultrafast communication,” U.S. patent application 20020150242 (October 17, 2002).

2003 (1)

N. Cam-Winget, R. Housley, and D. Wagner, Commun. ACM 46, 35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Jallad, J. Katz, and B. SchneierLect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2433, 90 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (5)

1998 (1)

M. Bellare, A. Desai, D. Pointcheval, and P. Rogaway, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1462, 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bellare, M.

M. Bellare, A. Desai, D. Pointcheval, and P. Rogaway, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1462, 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cam-Winget, N.

N. Cam-Winget, R. Housley, and D. Wagner, Commun. ACM 46, 35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Desai, A.

M. Bellare, A. Desai, D. Pointcheval, and P. Rogaway, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1462, 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glückstad, J.

Han, J. W.

J. W. Han, C. S. Park, D. H. Ryu, and E. S. Kim, Opt. Eng. 38, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Housley, R.

N. Cam-Winget, R. Housley, and D. Wagner, Commun. ACM 46, 35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jallad, K.

K. Jallad, J. Katz, and B. SchneierLect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2433, 90 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 38, 7288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 38, 6785 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Towghi, B. Javidi, and Z. Luo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 24, 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 20, 767 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption,” U.S. patent 6,002,773 (December 14, 1999).

B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption,” U.S. patent 5,903,648 (May 11, 1999).

B. Javidi and O. Matoba, “Method and apparatus for secure ultrafast communication,” U.S. patent application 20020150242 (October 17, 2002).

B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption using partial information,” U.S. patent 6,519,340 (February 11, 2003).

Katz, J.

K. Jallad, J. Katz, and B. SchneierLect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2433, 90 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Katz and B. Schneier, presented at the Ninth Annual USENIX Security Symposium, Denver, Colo., August 14–17, 2000, available at http://www.schneier.com/paper-chotext.pdf.

Kim, E. S.

J. W. Han, C. S. Park, D. H. Ryu, and E. S. Kim, Opt. Eng. 38, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

Matoba, O.

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 24, 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 38, 6785 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 38, 7288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and O. Matoba, “Method and apparatus for secure ultrafast communication,” U.S. patent application 20020150242 (October 17, 2002).

Mogensen, P. C.

Park, C. S.

J. W. Han, C. S. Park, D. H. Ryu, and E. S. Kim, Opt. Eng. 38, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pointcheval, D.

M. Bellare, A. Desai, D. Pointcheval, and P. Rogaway, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1462, 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Rogaway, P.

M. Bellare, A. Desai, D. Pointcheval, and P. Rogaway, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1462, 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, D. H.

J. W. Han, C. S. Park, D. H. Ryu, and E. S. Kim, Opt. Eng. 38, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schneier, B.

K. Jallad, J. Katz, and B. SchneierLect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2433, 90 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Katz and B. Schneier, presented at the Ninth Annual USENIX Security Symposium, Denver, Colo., August 14–17, 2000, available at http://www.schneier.com/paper-chotext.pdf.

Towghi, N.

Wagner, D.

N. Cam-Winget, R. Housley, and D. Wagner, Commun. ACM 46, 35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Commun. ACM (1)

N. Cam-Winget, R. Housley, and D. Wagner, Commun. ACM 46, 35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (2)

M. Bellare, A. Desai, D. Pointcheval, and P. Rogaway, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1462, 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Jallad, J. Katz, and B. SchneierLect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2433, 90 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Han, C. S. Park, D. H. Ryu, and E. S. Kim, Opt. Eng. 38, 47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (5)

J. Katz and B. Schneier, presented at the Ninth Annual USENIX Security Symposium, Denver, Colo., August 14–17, 2000, available at http://www.schneier.com/paper-chotext.pdf.

B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption using partial information,” U.S. patent 6,519,340 (February 11, 2003).

B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption,” U.S. patent 6,002,773 (December 14, 1999).

B. Javidi, “Method and apparatus for encryption,” U.S. patent 5,903,648 (May 11, 1999).

B. Javidi and O. Matoba, “Method and apparatus for secure ultrafast communication,” U.S. patent application 20020150242 (October 17, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

4 f optical encryption processor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

4 f optical decryption processor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Image of Lena [ f ( x , y ) ] . (b) Encrypted image of Lena [ g ( x , y ) 2 ] . (c) Reconstruction h ( x , y ) 2 using a false key. (d) Reconstruction h ( x , y ) 2 using the true key.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of Lena reconstructed from partially recovered keys: (a) 128 × 128   pixels , (b) 64 × 64   pixels , (c) 32 × 32   pixels , (d) 16 × 16   pixels .

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g ( x , y ) = [ f ( x , y ) N 1 ( x , y ) ] FT [ N 2 ( u , v ) ] ,
FT [ g ( x , y ) ] N 3 ( u , v ) = FT [ f ( x , y ) N 1 ( x , y ) ] N 2 ( u , v ) N 3 ( u , v ) .
h ( x , y ) 2 = f ( x , y ) N 1 ( x , y ) FT [ N 2 ( u , v ) N 3 ( u , v ) ] 2 .
g b ( x , y ) = 1 2 [ exp ( 2 π i f x 1 x ) exp ( 2 π i f y 1 y ) + exp ( 2 π i f x 2 x ) exp ( 2 π i f y 2 y ) ] ,
G b ( u , v ) = 1 2 [ δ ( u f x 1 , v f y 1 ) + δ ( u f x 2 , v f y 2 ) ] ,
h b ( x , y ) = FT [ G b ( u , v ) N 3 ( u , v ) ] = 1 2 { exp [ i n 3 ( f x 1 , f y 1 ) ] exp ( 2 π i f x 1 x ) exp ( 2 π i f y 1 y ) + exp [ i n 3 ( f x 1 , f y 1 ) ] exp ( 2 π i f x 2 x ) exp ( 2 π i f y 2 y ) } .
h b ( x , y ) 2 = 1 2 + 1 2 cos [ 2 π ( f x 1 f x 2 ) x + 2 π ( f y 1 f y 2 ) y + n 3 ( f x 2 , f y 2 ) n 3 ( f x 1 , f y 1 ) ] .

Metrics