Abstract

The present insight into plasmon effects on the nanoscale seems sufficiently advanced to allow the development of surface-plasmon-polariton- (SPP-) based optical devices. Therefore quantitative information describing SPP phenomena is required. We investigate a SPP beam splitter constituted by silver nanoparticles on a silver thin film, fabricated by electron-beam lithography. We acquire quantitative information on the beam splitter performance by monitoring SPP leakage radiation, yielding SPP reflection, transmission, and scattering efficiencies.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, 1988).
  2. J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davi, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leasson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Ruppin, Solid State Commun. 39, 903 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leasson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davi, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. Ruppin, Solid State Commun. 39, 903 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. A.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leasson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davi, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davi, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erland, J.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leasson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felidj, N.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Güntherodt, H.-J.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, Th.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leasson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leasson, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leasson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mait, J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davi, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davi, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, 1988).

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, Solid State Commun. 39, 903 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, M.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leasson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davi, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tamaru, H.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. A. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davi, Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leasson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

R. Ruppin, Solid State Commun. 39, 903 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, 1988).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental scheme for LR imaging. SPPs are excited by focusing a laser beam onto a structured silver film on a glass substrate. LR is emitted into the glass substrate at an angle θ SPP . F, gray filter; P, polarizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPP excitation and interaction with a nanoparticle beam splitter. (a) Scanning electron micrograph, showing the ridge for SPP launch and the nanoparticle chain constituting the beam splitter. The white circle marks the laser focus position; the arrows marked E, T, and R indicate the SPPs propagating freely to the left, being transmitted through the beam splitter, and being reflected, respectively. (b) Corresponding LR image for a laser wavelength of 800 nm . The arrows define the range of the cross cuts in Fig. 3; P indicates the polarization direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cuts of SPP intensity profiles along the arrows in Fig. 2(b), together with fits calculated by Eq. (1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission (T) and reflection (R) efficiencies of the nanoparticle beam splitter in Fig. 2 versus laser light wavelength. Solid curve, guide to the eye.

Equations (1)

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I ( x ) = I 0 exp [ ( x + l ) t ] x + l + I back ,

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