Abstract

Triple-layer omnidirectional reflectors (ODRs) consisting of a semiconductor, a quarter-wavelength transparent dielectric layer, and a metal have high reflectivities for all angles of incidence. Internal ODRs (ambient material’s refractive index n1.0) are demonstrated that incorporate nanoporous SiO2, a low-refractive-index material (n=1.23), as well as dense SiO2 (n=1.46). GaP and Ag serve as the semiconductor and the metal layer, respectively. Reflectivity measurements, including angular dependence, are presented. Calculated angle-integrated TE and TM reflectivities for ODRs employing nanoporous SiO2 are RintTE=99.9% and RintTM=98.9%, respectively, indicating the high potential of the ODRs for low-loss waveguide structures.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diodes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

2004 (1)

J. K. Kim, Th. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Th. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, M. Holtz, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Zhu, J. C. Denyszyn, U. Chowdhury, M. M. Wong, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, S. Ponoth, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. V. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. C. Wayner, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, L797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, B.

G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, M. Holtz, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

Chowdhury, U.

T. G. Zhu, J. C. Denyszyn, U. Chowdhury, M. M. Wong, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denyszyn, J. C.

T. G. Zhu, J. C. Denyszyn, U. Chowdhury, M. M. Wong, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

T. G. Zhu, J. C. Denyszyn, U. Chowdhury, M. M. Wong, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, Th.

J. K. Kim, Th. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gill, W. N.

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, S. Ponoth, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. C. Wayner, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graff, J. W.

Th. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, M.

G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, M. Holtz, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, L797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, S. Ponoth, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. C. Wayner, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

Th. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, Th. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kipshidze, G.

G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, M. Holtz, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuryatkov, V.

G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, M. Holtz, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, Th. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, L797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, L797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nikishin, S.

G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, M. Holtz, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, S. V.

S. V. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. C. Wayner, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

Pisupatti, V.

S. V. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. C. Wayner, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Plawsky, J. L.

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, S. Ponoth, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. C. Wayner, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ponoth, S.

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, S. Ponoth, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rogojevic, S.

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, S. Ponoth, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, Th. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diodes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003).

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, L797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

Th. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, M. Holtz, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wayner, P. C.

S. V. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. C. Wayner, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

Wong, M. M.

T. G. Zhu, J. C. Denyszyn, U. Chowdhury, M. M. Wong, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T. G.

T. G. Zhu, J. C. Denyszyn, U. Chowdhury, M. M. Wong, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, M. Holtz, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, Th. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

Th. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. G. Zhu, J. C. Denyszyn, U. Chowdhury, M. M. Wong, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5832 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Jain, S. Rogojevic, S. Ponoth, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. V. Nitta, V. Pisupatti, A. Jain, P. C. Wayner, W. N. Gill, and J. L. Plawsky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, L797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diodes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a triple-layer ODR. (b) Setup using a prism and high-index fluid allowing coupling of light into GaP at angles of up to θ = 27.3 ° .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrograph of a 105-nm-thick nanoporous SiO 2 film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated (solid curves) and measured (dotted curves) reflectivity versus (a) angle of incidence and (b) wavelength for a triple-layer ODR with nanoporous SiO 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated (solid curves) and measured (dotted curves) reflectivity versus (a) angle of incidence and (b) wavelength for a triple-layer ODR with dense SiO 2 .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Calculated Reflectivity (%) at λ = 632.8 nm for Different Reflectors

Equations (4)

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R normal = [ ( n semi n die ) ( n die + n metal + i κ metal ) + ( n semi + n die ) ( n die n metal i κ metal ) exp ( 2 i β h ) ( n semi + n die ) ( n die + n metal + i κ metal ) + ( n semi n die ) ( n die n metal i κ metal ) exp ( 2 i β h ) ] 2 ,
2 β + φ normal = 4 π λ n die h opt + φ normal = 2 π .
tan φ normal = 2 κ metal n die n metal 2 + κ metal 2 n die 2 .
R int = 0 π 2 R ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ 0 π 2 sin ( θ ) d θ .

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