Abstract

A holographic interferometer senses vapor-induced optical path length changes in polymer or other chemically sensitive films. The interferometer is inherently sensitive to changes in chemical vapor content, self-compensates for drifts, and accommodates a large array of sensor elements. A sniff-locked-loop synchronous detection method takes advantage of the interferometer’s rapid response to achieve vapor concentration sensitivity in the parts-per-billion (ppb, parts in 109) range. We demonstrate, for example, 40 ppb sensitivity to ethyl alcohol using poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) with a measurement time of 5 s.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (1)

G. K. Kannan, A. T. Nimal, U. Mittal, R. D.S. Yadava, and J. C. Kapoor, Sens. Actuators B 101, 328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Severin, B. J. Doleman, and N. S. Lewis, Anal. Chem. 72, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. A. Remley and A. Weisshaar, Opt. Lett. 21, 1241 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miwa and T. Arakawa, Thin Solid Films 282, 466 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. W. Gardner, T. C. Pearce, S. Friel, P. N. Bartlett, and N. Blair, Sens. Actuators B 18, 240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. Nakamoto, T. Fukuda, and T. Moriizumi, Sens. Actuators B 3, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. Ballantine, S. Rose, J. Grate, and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 3058 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

K. Persaud and G. Dodd, Nature 299, 352 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Andreoli, C.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, T.

S. Miwa and T. Arakawa, Thin Solid Films 282, 466 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ballantine, D.

D. Ballantine, S. Rose, J. Grate, and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 3058 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

J. W. Gardner, T. C. Pearce, S. Friel, P. N. Bartlett, and N. Blair, Sens. Actuators B 18, 240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Battiston, F.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berger, R.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blair, N.

J. W. Gardner, T. C. Pearce, S. Friel, P. N. Bartlett, and N. Blair, Sens. Actuators B 18, 240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brugger, J.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Despont, M.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dodd, G.

K. Persaud and G. Dodd, Nature 299, 352 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doleman, B. J.

E. Severin, B. J. Doleman, and N. S. Lewis, Anal. Chem. 72, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinberg, J.

D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Friel, S.

J. W. Gardner, T. C. Pearce, S. Friel, P. N. Bartlett, and N. Blair, Sens. Actuators B 18, 240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

T. Nakamoto, T. Fukuda, and T. Moriizumi, Sens. Actuators B 3, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. W.

J. W. Gardner, T. C. Pearce, S. Friel, P. N. Bartlett, and N. Blair, Sens. Actuators B 18, 240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, C.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gimzewski, J.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grate, J.

D. Ballantine, S. Rose, J. Grate, and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 3058 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Güntherodt, H.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, G. K.

G. K. Kannan, A. T. Nimal, U. Mittal, R. D.S. Yadava, and J. C. Kapoor, Sens. Actuators B 101, 328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kapoor, J. C.

G. K. Kannan, A. T. Nimal, U. Mittal, R. D.S. Yadava, and J. C. Kapoor, Sens. Actuators B 101, 328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. K.

N. K. Kukhtarev, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer, 1988), pp. 99–128.
[CrossRef]

Lang, H. P.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

E. Severin, B. J. Doleman, and N. S. Lewis, Anal. Chem. 72, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, E.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mezzacasa, T.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mittal, U.

G. K. Kannan, A. T. Nimal, U. Mittal, R. D.S. Yadava, and J. C. Kapoor, Sens. Actuators B 101, 328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, S.

S. Miwa and T. Arakawa, Thin Solid Films 282, 466 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moriizumi, T.

T. Nakamoto, T. Fukuda, and T. Moriizumi, Sens. Actuators B 3, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakamoto, T.

T. Nakamoto, T. Fukuda, and T. Moriizumi, Sens. Actuators B 3, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nimal, A. T.

G. K. Kannan, A. T. Nimal, U. Mittal, R. D.S. Yadava, and J. C. Kapoor, Sens. Actuators B 101, 328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, T. C.

J. W. Gardner, T. C. Pearce, S. Friel, P. N. Bartlett, and N. Blair, Sens. Actuators B 18, 240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Persaud, K.

K. Persaud and G. Dodd, Nature 299, 352 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramseyer, J.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Remley, K. A.

Rose, S.

D. Ballantine, S. Rose, J. Grate, and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 3058 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Scandella, L.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Severin, E.

E. Severin, B. J. Doleman, and N. S. Lewis, Anal. Chem. 72, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vettiger, P.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vieth, W. R.

W. R. Vieth, in Diffusion in and Through Polymers (Hanser, 1991), pp. 15–44.

Weisshaar, A.

Wohltjen, H.

D. Ballantine, S. Rose, J. Grate, and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 3058 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yadava, R. D.S.

G. K. Kannan, A. T. Nimal, U. Mittal, R. D.S. Yadava, and J. C. Kapoor, Sens. Actuators B 101, 328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

D. Ballantine, S. Rose, J. Grate, and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 3058 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Severin, B. J. Doleman, and N. S. Lewis, Anal. Chem. 72, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, J. Ramseyer, E. Meyer, C. Andreoli, J. Brugger, P. Vettiger, M. Despont, T. Mezzacasa, L. Scandella, H. Güntherodt, C. Gerber, and J. Gimzewski, Appl. Phys. A 66, S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Persaud and G. Dodd, Nature 299, 352 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators B (3)

G. K. Kannan, A. T. Nimal, U. Mittal, R. D.S. Yadava, and J. C. Kapoor, Sens. Actuators B 101, 328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Gardner, T. C. Pearce, S. Friel, P. N. Bartlett, and N. Blair, Sens. Actuators B 18, 240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakamoto, T. Fukuda, and T. Moriizumi, Sens. Actuators B 3, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Miwa and T. Arakawa, Thin Solid Films 282, 466 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. R. Vieth, in Diffusion in and Through Polymers (Hanser, 1991), pp. 15–44.

N. K. Kukhtarev, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer, 1988), pp. 99–128.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the holographic interferometer: PD 1, PD 2, photodiodes; BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; Pol., polarizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response patterns of a 3 × 3 polymer array when exposed to vapors of (a) acetone, (b) benzene, (c) dichloromethane, and (d) ethyl alcohol.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vapor sensor’s typical response curve when exposed to a periodic concentration signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vapor sensor’s response under a periodic 100 parts in 10 6 ( ppm ) ethyl alcohol vapor signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sniff-locked-loop schematic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Chemical calibration curves of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) exposed to water vapor, ethyl alcohol vapor, and methyl alcohol vapor.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calibration curve of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) exposed to ppb-level ethyl alcohol vapor with the sensitivity enhancement technique.

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