Abstract

In a two-layer diffusing medium, polarized light directly backscattering off the superficial layer will partially retain its sense of polarization, whereas deeper-probing light will be increasingly depolarized by diffusion. This effect has been studied in both elastic scattering and fluorescence contexts. We apply this method to Raman scattering in two two-layer models with a highly diffusing lower layer of glucose powder and an upper layer of either clear plastic or chicken skin. We employ detection of orthogonal polarization states to generate a Raman spectrum of only the superficial layer by combining the orthogonal signals.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Cotran, S. Robbins, and V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).
  2. A. Berger, T. Koo, I. Itzkan, G. Horowitz, and M. Feld, Appl. Opt. 38, 2916 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Wilson, J. Decius, and P. Cross, Molecular Vibrations (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).
  5. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Ghosh, S. K. Majumder, and P. Gupta, Opt. Lett. 27, 2007 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Caspers, G. Lucassen, E. Carter, H. Bruining, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Bigelow, “Biological applications of confocal fluorescence polarization microscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 2005).
  12. Q. Zhu, R. Quivey, and A. Berger, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1182 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, R. Quivey, and A. Berger, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Ghosh, S. K. Majumder, and P. Gupta, Opt. Lett. 27, 2007 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

P. Caspers, G. Lucassen, E. Carter, H. Bruining, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Berger, T. Koo, I. Itzkan, G. Horowitz, and M. Feld, Appl. Opt. 38, 2916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A.

Bigelow, C.

C. Bigelow, “Biological applications of confocal fluorescence polarization microscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 2005).

Bruining, H.

P. Caspers, G. Lucassen, E. Carter, H. Bruining, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, E.

P. Caspers, G. Lucassen, E. Carter, H. Bruining, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caspers, P.

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Caspers, G. Lucassen, E. Carter, H. Bruining, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christensen, D.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotran, R.

R. Cotran, S. Robbins, and V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Cross, P.

E. Wilson, J. Decius, and P. Cross, Molecular Vibrations (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).

Dam, J. V.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Decius, J.

E. Wilson, J. Decius, and P. Cross, Molecular Vibrations (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).

Ermakov, I.

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berger, T. Koo, I. Itzkan, G. Horowitz, and M. Feld, Appl. Opt. 38, 2916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gellermann, W.

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, N.

Gniadecka, M.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gniadecki, R.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, P.

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, L.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hata, T.

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, D.

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hercogova, J.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heule, F.

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, G.

Itzkan, I.

A. Berger, T. Koo, I. Itzkan, G. Horowitz, and M. Feld, Appl. Opt. 38, 2916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khachik, F.

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, T.

Kumar, V.

R. Cotran, S. Robbins, and V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Lucassen, G.

P. Caspers, G. Lucassen, E. Carter, H. Bruining, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majumder, S. K.

McClane, R.

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, M.

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, O.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nijssen, A.

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pershing, L.

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philipsen, P.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G.

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Caspers, G. Lucassen, E. Carter, H. Bruining, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quivey, R.

Q. Zhu, R. Quivey, and A. Berger, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, S.

R. Cotran, S. Robbins, and V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Rossen, K.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholz, T.

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schut, T.

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigurdsson, S.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, H.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wessel, S.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, E.

E. Wilson, J. Decius, and P. Cross, Molecular Vibrations (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).

Wulf, H.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, R. Quivey, and A. Berger, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Gastroenterology

I. Georgakoudi, B. Jacobson, J. V. Dam, V. Backman, M. Wallace, M. Miller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. Thomas, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, Gastroenterology 120, 1620 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, L. Perelman, and M. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Q. Zhu, R. Quivey, and A. Berger, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

M. Gniadecka, P. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. Nielsen, D. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. Hansen, and H. Wulf, J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, T. Schut, F. Heule, P. Caspers, D. Hayes, M. Neumann, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Caspers, G. Lucassen, E. Carter, H. Bruining, and G. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hata, T. Scholz, I. Ermakov, R. McClane, F. Khachik, W. Gellermann, and L. Pershing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Bigelow, “Biological applications of confocal fluorescence polarization microscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 2005).

E. Wilson, J. Decius, and P. Cross, Molecular Vibrations (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).

R. Cotran, S. Robbins, and V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

I tot Raman spectra obtained from (A) a cuvette filled with glucose and (B) pure glucose powder. I SS spectra obtained from (C) a cuvette filled with glucose and (D) an unfilled cuvette. Spectra are offset for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I tot Raman spectra obtained from (A) skin, (B) skin stretched over glucose, and (C) glucose powder. I SS spectra obtained from (D) skin stretched over glucose and (E) skin alone. Spectra are offset for clarity.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I tot = I SS + I MS ,
I = 1 2 I MS + ( 1 2 α 2 ) I SS ,
I = 1 2 I MS + ( 1 2 + α 2 ) I SS ,

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