Abstract

We analyze statistical fluctuations in the pulse-to-pulse spatial fluence distribution of a highly multimode F2 laser beam and the influence that coherence effects have on the attainable smoothness of an ablated surface. The magnitude of fluctuations is predicted to be a few percent, with associated roughness increasing as m12, where m is the number of ablation pulses. By use of a white-light optical interferometer, measurements have been made of roughness induced on N-BK7 glass surfaces ablated with a 157-nm laser, and reasonable agreement with predictions based on this roughening mechanism has been found.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Schafer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Obata, K. Sugioka, T. Akane, K. Midorikawa, N. Aoki, and K. Toyoda, Opt. Lett. 27, 330 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B Saleh, Photoelectron Statistics, Vol. 6 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. Sansonetti, J. Reader, and K. Vogler, Appl. Opt. 40, 1974 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. E. Siegman and S. W. Townsend, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1212 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Santarsiero, F. Gori, R. Borghi, and G. Guattari, Appl. Opt. 38, 5272 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Skordoulis, S. Spyrou, and A. C. Cefalas, Appl. Phys. B 51, 141 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, H. V. Snelling, and C. D. Walton, Proc. SPIE 4637, 218 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Kuper, J. Brannon, and K. Brannon, Appl. Phys. A 56, 43 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, H. V. Snelling, and C. D. Walton, Proc. SPIE 4637, 218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Obata, K. Sugioka, T. Akane, K. Midorikawa, N. Aoki, and K. Toyoda, Opt. Lett. 27, 330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

C. J. Sansonetti, J. Reader, and K. Vogler, Appl. Opt. 40, 1974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schafer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1993 (2)

S. Kuper, J. Brannon, and K. Brannon, Appl. Phys. A 56, 43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman and S. W. Townsend, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Skordoulis, S. Spyrou, and A. C. Cefalas, Appl. Phys. B 51, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akane, T.

Aoki, N.

Bates, A. K.

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bloomstein, T. M.

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borghi, R.

Brannon, J.

S. Kuper, J. Brannon, and K. Brannon, Appl. Phys. A 56, 43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brannon, K.

S. Kuper, J. Brannon, and K. Brannon, Appl. Phys. A 56, 43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cefalas, A. C.

C. Skordoulis, S. Spyrou, and A. C. Cefalas, Appl. Phys. B 51, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, H. V. Snelling, and C. D. Walton, Proc. SPIE 4637, 218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ersoz, M.

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fedynyshyn, T. H.

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, P. D.I.

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gori, F.

Guattari, G.

Herman, P. R.

D. Schafer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ihlemann, J.

D. Schafer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. R.

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuper, S.

S. Kuper, J. Brannon, and K. Brannon, Appl. Phys. A 56, 43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Libermam, V.

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

D. Schafer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maswadi, S. M.

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, H. V. Snelling, and C. D. Walton, Proc. SPIE 4637, 218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Obata, K.

Paunov, V. N.

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reader, J.

Rothschild, M.

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B

B Saleh, Photoelectron Statistics, Vol. 6 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, C. J.

Santarsiero, M.

Schafer, D.

D. Schafer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman and S. W. Townsend, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skordoulis, C.

C. Skordoulis, S. Spyrou, and A. C. Cefalas, Appl. Phys. B 51, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Snelling, H. V.

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, H. V. Snelling, and C. D. Walton, Proc. SPIE 4637, 218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spyrou, S.

C. Skordoulis, S. Spyrou, and A. C. Cefalas, Appl. Phys. B 51, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

Switkes, M.

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, S. W.

A. E. Siegman and S. W. Townsend, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Vogler, K.

Walton, C. D.

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, H. V. Snelling, and C. D. Walton, Proc. SPIE 4637, 218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. A (3)

D. Schafer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, C. D. Walton, M. Ersoz, P. D.I. Fletcher, and V. N. Paunov, Appl. Phys. A 77, 391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuper, J. Brannon, and K. Brannon, Appl. Phys. A 56, 43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Skordoulis, S. Spyrou, and A. C. Cefalas, Appl. Phys. B 51, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

A. K. Bates, M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Libermam, and M. Switkes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Siegman and S. W. Townsend, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. E. Dyer, S. M. Maswadi, H. V. Snelling, and C. D. Walton, Proc. SPIE 4637, 218 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B Saleh, Photoelectron Statistics, Vol. 6 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical micrographs of a VUV F 2 laser-ablated N-BK7 glass sample: (a) unirradiated, (b) 1 pulse, and (c) 100 pulses at a laser fluence of 1100 mJ cm 2 . (Differential interference contrast, 500 × magnification).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

rms surface roughness versus laser pulse number for laser-ablated N-BK7 glass at (triangles) 1100 mJ cm 2 , (circles) 970 mJ cm 2 , (squares) 670 mJ cm 2 . Insets, height distributions for 1, 20, and 100 laser pulses at 1100 mJ cm 2 . The curves are based on theoretical predictions.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d p = 1 2 π σ exp [ ( F F ) 2 2 σ 2 ] d F .
δ F L F L [ 1 exp ( F L F S ) ] F S F L 1 ( f π Δ ν τ P ) 1 2 ,
σ X = X 0 exp ( F A F ) F A F [ 1 exp ( F L F S ) ] F S F L 1 ( f π Δ ν τ P ) 1 2 .

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