Abstract

A complete module for single-photon counting and timing is demonstrated in a single chip. Features comparable with or better than commercially available macroscopic modules are obtained by integration of an active-quenching and active-reset circuit in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology together with a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD). The integrated SPAD has a 12-?m-diameter sensitive area and operates with an overvoltage above breakdown adjustable up to 20?V. With a 5-V overvoltage the photon detection efficiency peaks above 40% around 500?nm, and the dark-counting rate is lower than 600? counts?s at room temperature. The overall counting dead time is 33?ns.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, Appl. Opt. 35, 1956 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Antognetti, S. Cova, and A. Longoni, in The Proceedings of the Second Ispra Nuclear Electronics Symposium, Euratom Publication EUR 5370e (Euratom, 1975), pp. 453–456.
  3. S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Dautet, P. Deschampes, B. Dion, A. D. MacGregor, D. MacSween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. Webb, Appl. Opt. 32, 3894 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. “Single-Photon Counting Module, SPCM-AQR Series, Datasheet” (Perkin Elmer Optoelectronics, Vaudreuil, Quebec, Canada), http://opto.perkinelmer.com.
  6. A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, Sens. Actuators A 110, 124 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Zappa, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, “Monolithic circuit of active quenching and active reset for avalanche photodiodes,” U.S. patent 6,541,752 B2 (April 1, 2003).
  9. F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, Electron. Lett. 24, 1476 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Kindt and H. W. van Zeijl, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 715 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 685 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, Sens. Actuators A 110, 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. J. Kindt and H. W. van Zeijl, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 685 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, Electron. Lett. 24, 1476 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Antognetti, P.

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, and A. Longoni, in The Proceedings of the Second Ispra Nuclear Electronics Symposium, Euratom Publication EUR 5370e (Euratom, 1975), pp. 453–456.

Besse, P. A.

A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, Sens. Actuators A 110, 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, Appl. Opt. 35, 1956 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 685 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, Electron. Lett. 24, 1476 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Zappa, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, “Monolithic circuit of active quenching and active reset for avalanche photodiodes,” U.S. patent 6,541,752 B2 (April 1, 2003).

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, and A. Longoni, in The Proceedings of the Second Ispra Nuclear Electronics Symposium, Euratom Publication EUR 5370e (Euratom, 1975), pp. 453–456.

Dautet, H.

Deschampes, P.

Dion, B.

Furrer, B.

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gani, M.

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, Appl. Opt. 35, 1956 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, Electron. Lett. 24, 1476 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Zappa, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, “Monolithic circuit of active quenching and active reset for avalanche photodiodes,” U.S. patent 6,541,752 B2 (April 1, 2003).

Gisin, N.

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giudice, A. C.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kindt, W. J.

W. J. Kindt and H. W. van Zeijl, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, Appl. Opt. 35, 1956 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 685 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, Electron. Lett. 24, 1476 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Longoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, and A. Longoni, in The Proceedings of the Second Ispra Nuclear Electronics Symposium, Euratom Publication EUR 5370e (Euratom, 1975), pp. 453–456.

Lotito, A.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacGregor, A. D.

MacSween, D.

McIntyre, R. J.

Popovic, R. S.

A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, Sens. Actuators A 110, 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, M.

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ripamonti, G.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 685 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, Electron. Lett. 24, 1476 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, Sens. Actuators A 110, 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Samori, C.

Trottier, C.

van Zeijl, H. W.

W. J. Kindt and H. W. van Zeijl, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webb, P.

Zappa, F.

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, Appl. Opt. 35, 1956 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zappa, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, “Monolithic circuit of active quenching and active reset for avalanche photodiodes,” U.S. patent 6,541,752 B2 (April 1, 2003).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Ghioni, S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, Electron. Lett. 24, 1476 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, and G. Ripamonti, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 685 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

F. Zappa, A. Lotito, A. C. Giudice, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 1298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

W. J. Kindt and H. W. van Zeijl, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Rochas, M. Gani, B. Furrer, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, M. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, Sens. Actuators A 110, 124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. Zappa, S. Cova, and M. Ghioni, “Monolithic circuit of active quenching and active reset for avalanche photodiodes,” U.S. patent 6,541,752 B2 (April 1, 2003).

“Single-Photon Counting Module, SPCM-AQR Series, Datasheet” (Perkin Elmer Optoelectronics, Vaudreuil, Quebec, Canada), http://opto.perkinelmer.com.

P. Antognetti, S. Cova, and A. Longoni, in The Proceedings of the Second Ispra Nuclear Electronics Symposium, Euratom Publication EUR 5370e (Euratom, 1975), pp. 453–456.

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