Abstract

We outline a method for accomplishing photolithography on grossly nonplanar substrates. First we compute an approximation of the diffraction pattern that will produce the desired light-intensity distribution on the substrate to be patterned. This pattern is then digitized and converted into a format suitable for manufacture by a direct-write method. The resultant computer-generated hologram mask is then used in a custom alignment tool to expose the photoresist-coated substrate. The technique has many potential applications in the packaging of microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. K.-K. Wong, Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. L. Williams, I. Wallhead, V. Sarojiniamma, P. A. Ivey, and N. L. Seed, Sens. Actuators A 112, 360 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Purvis, A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, “Holographic lithography,” U.K. patent 0418815.7 (filed August 24, 2004).
  5. Ch. Frere, D. Leseberg, and O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 726 (1986).
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  6. R. Hauck, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 5 (1984).
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  7. A. Lohmann and D. Paris, Appl. Opt. 6, 1739 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Merricks, in Special Polymers for Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. A. Chilton and M. T. Goosey, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1995), p. 37.
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Schnupp, R. Baumgärtner, R. Kühnhold, and H. Ryssel, Sens. Actuators A 85, 310 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. L. Williams, I. Wallhead, V. Sarojiniamma, P. A. Ivey, and N. L. Seed, Sens. Actuators A 112, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Schnupp, R. Baumgärtner, R. Kühnhold, and H. Ryssel, Sens. Actuators A 85, 310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1967 (1)

Baumgärtner, R.

R. Schnupp, R. Baumgärtner, R. Kühnhold, and H. Ryssel, Sens. Actuators A 85, 310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bryngdahl, O.

Clube, F.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Darbellay, Y

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frere, Ch.

Gray, S.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hauck, R.

Ivey, P. A.

G. L. Williams, I. Wallhead, V. Sarojiniamma, P. A. Ivey, and N. L. Seed, Sens. Actuators A 112, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Purvis, A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, “Holographic lithography,” U.K. patent 0418815.7 (filed August 24, 2004).

Kühnhold, R.

R. Schnupp, R. Baumgärtner, R. Kühnhold, and H. Ryssel, Sens. Actuators A 85, 310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Gratiet, B.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leseberg, D.

Lohmann, A.

Magnon, N.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maiden, A.

A. Purvis, A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, “Holographic lithography,” U.K. patent 0418815.7 (filed August 24, 2004).

Malfoy, S.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McWilliam, R.

A. Purvis, A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, “Holographic lithography,” U.K. patent 0418815.7 (filed August 24, 2004).

Merricks, D.

D. Merricks, in Special Polymers for Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. A. Chilton and M. T. Goosey, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1995), p. 37.
[CrossRef]

Paris, D.

Purvis, A.

A. Purvis, A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, “Holographic lithography,” U.K. patent 0418815.7 (filed August 24, 2004).

Ryssel, H.

R. Schnupp, R. Baumgärtner, R. Kühnhold, and H. Ryssel, Sens. Actuators A 85, 310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sarojiniamma, V.

G. L. Williams, I. Wallhead, V. Sarojiniamma, P. A. Ivey, and N. L. Seed, Sens. Actuators A 112, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schnupp, R.

R. Schnupp, R. Baumgärtner, R. Kühnhold, and H. Ryssel, Sens. Actuators A 85, 310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seed, N. L.

G. L. Williams, I. Wallhead, V. Sarojiniamma, P. A. Ivey, and N. L. Seed, Sens. Actuators A 112, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Purvis, A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, “Holographic lithography,” U.K. patent 0418815.7 (filed August 24, 2004).

Struchen, D.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tisserand, J.-C.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wallhead, I.

G. L. Williams, I. Wallhead, V. Sarojiniamma, P. A. Ivey, and N. L. Seed, Sens. Actuators A 112, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. L.

G. L. Williams, I. Wallhead, V. Sarojiniamma, P. A. Ivey, and N. L. Seed, Sens. Actuators A 112, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Purvis, A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, “Holographic lithography,” U.K. patent 0418815.7 (filed August 24, 2004).

Wong, A. K.-K.

A. K.-K. Wong, Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, S. Malfoy, Y Darbellay, N. Magnon, B. Le Gratiet, and J.-C. Tisserand, Proc. SPIE 3099, 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (2)

G. L. Williams, I. Wallhead, V. Sarojiniamma, P. A. Ivey, and N. L. Seed, Sens. Actuators A 112, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Schnupp, R. Baumgärtner, R. Kühnhold, and H. Ryssel, Sens. Actuators A 85, 310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. K.-K. Wong, Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Purvis, A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, “Holographic lithography,” U.K. patent 0418815.7 (filed August 24, 2004).

D. Merricks, in Special Polymers for Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. A. Chilton and M. T. Goosey, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1995), p. 37.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Line geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thresholded CGH representation of a stepped line segment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the approximation in relation (6) with CCD and depth profile data: (a) diamond stylus depth profile data (photoresist approximately 3 μ m thick), (b) CCD data, (c) cross-sectional approximation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of line–slope–line patterned substrates. Right, photograph of an imaged line in a photoresist-coated substrate (brass block); left, scanning electron microscope images of nickel tracks deposited onto the line (Ti–Au-coated Si substrates).

Equations (6)

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H ( X , Y ) = exp ( j π λ z x y 2 ) ,
x = X cos ( α ) Y sin ( α ) , y = X sin ( α ) + Y cos ( α ) .
U ( u , v ) = f ( u ) a λ z sinc ( a v λ z ) ,
f ( u ) { 1 u b 2 0 u > b 2 } ,
H ( X , Y ) = exp [ j π λ z x ( y y 0 ) 2 ] rect ( x x 0 b , y y 0 a ) ,
U ( v ) a π sinc ( a v λ z ) + λ z 2 rect ( v a ) + λ z π rect ( v 2 a ) .

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