Abstract

We show that the strength of long-period gratings recorded in boron-doped fibers by CO2 radiation can be significantly enhanced by a uniform pre-exposure by the same laser. The resultant gratings could be erased by a similar uniform exposure and then recorded again multiple times with no loss of fiber sensitivity. We suggest that such gratings are formed by reversible densification of the fiber core. These densification gratings have higher thermal stability than gratings written with ultraviolet light.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, Opt. Lett. 26, 1657 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Ota, W. J. Botta, G. Vaughand, and A. R. Yavari, J. Alloys Compd. 388, L1 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, Electron. Lett. 19, 143 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Carter, Nufern, 7 Airport Park Road, East Granby, Conn. 06026 (personal communication, 2005).
  7. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 35, 740 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005

K. Ota, W. J. Botta, G. Vaughand, and A. R. Yavari, J. Alloys Compd. 388, L1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 35, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, Electron. Lett. 19, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T.-J.

Birch, R. D.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, Electron. Lett. 19, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Botta, W. J.

K. Ota, W. J. Botta, G. Vaughand, and A. R. Yavari, J. Alloys Compd. 388, L1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A.

A. Carter, Nufern, 7 Airport Park Road, East Granby, Conn. 06026 (personal communication, 2005).

Chung, Y.

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, Opt. Lett. 26, 1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 35, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 35, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 35, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, Opt. Lett. 26, 1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Kim, C.-S.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, Opt. Lett. 26, 1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 35, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ota, K.

K. Ota, W. J. Botta, G. Vaughand, and A. R. Yavari, J. Alloys Compd. 388, L1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ourmazd, A.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, Electron. Lett. 19, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Paek, U.-C.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Payne, D. N.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, Electron. Lett. 19, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tarbox, E. J.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, Electron. Lett. 19, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Varnham, M. P.

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, Electron. Lett. 19, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vaughand, G.

K. Ota, W. J. Botta, G. Vaughand, and A. R. Yavari, J. Alloys Compd. 388, L1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yavari, A. R.

K. Ota, W. J. Botta, G. Vaughand, and A. R. Yavari, J. Alloys Compd. 388, L1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ourmazd, R. D. Birch, M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, Electron. Lett. 19, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 35, 740 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd.

K. Ota, W. J. Botta, G. Vaughand, and A. R. Yavari, J. Alloys Compd. 388, L1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Carter, Nufern, 7 Airport Park Road, East Granby, Conn. 06026 (personal communication, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of long-period gratings created with a C O 2 laser in fibers initially drawn with 18 g (lighter curves) and 47 g (darker curves) of tension: (a) untreated, as-drawn fibers, (b) fibers that had previously been erased by uniform laser exposure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Changes in the refractive index of the fiber core by use of a C O 2 laser. Top left, the fiber as drawn has its core frozen in an expanded, low-index configuration. Top right, laser irradiation (darker arrows) further reduces the index of exposed core sections to form a weak grating [Fig. 1(a)]. Bottom left, laser annealing densifies the core and increases its refractive index. Bottom right, subsequent pulsed laser exposure creates a high-contrast reversible grating [Fig. 1(b)].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermal stability of the densification gratings. The best fit is obtained at a transformation rate ν = 9 × 10 6 s .

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