Abstract

We report a simple optical sensing device capable of measuring the refractive index of liquids propagating in microfluidic channels. The sensor is based on a single-mode optical fiber that is tapered to submicrometer dimensions and immersed in a transparent curable soft polymer. A channel for liquid analyte is created in the immediate vicinity of the taper waist. Light propagating through the tapered section of the fiber extends into the channel, making the optical loss in the system sensitive to the refractive-index difference between the polymer and the liquid. The fabrication process and testing of the prototype sensing devices are described. The sensor can operate both as a highly responsive on–off device and in the continuous measurement mode, with an estimated accuracy of refractive-index measurement of 5×104.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, Sens. Actuators B 31, 244 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Quake and A. Sherer, Science 290, 1536 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, Opt. Lett. 29, 1093 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. C. Boucouvalas and G. Georgiou, Opt. Lett. 11, 257 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Lacroix, R. J. Black, C. Veilleux, and J. Lapierre, Appl. Opt. 25, 2468 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Stadnik and A. Dybko, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 128, 523 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, Electron. Lett. 40, 106 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 12, 2258 (2004), http:www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Markuze, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 103 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Weast, M. Astle, and W. Beyer, eds., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1987), p. D-232.
  14. P. R. Cooper, Appl. Opt. 22, 3070 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

D. Stadnik and A. Dybko, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 128, 523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. R. Quake and A. Sherer, Science 290, 1536 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, Sens. Actuators B 31, 244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1983 (1)

1978 (1)

Ashkom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Black, R. J.

Boucouvalas, A. C.

Brambilla, G.

Chow, E.

Cooper, P. R.

Dybko, A.

D. Stadnik and A. Dybko, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 128, 523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgiou, G.

Girolami, G.

Graber, N.

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, Sens. Actuators B 31, 244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grot, A.

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horvath, R.

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

Lapierre, J.

Larsen, N. B.

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manz, A.

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, Sens. Actuators B 31, 244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Markuze, D.

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

J. J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, Electron. Lett. 40, 106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, H. C.

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

S. R. Quake and A. Sherer, Science 290, 1536 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherer, A.

S. R. Quake and A. Sherer, Science 290, 1536 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M.

Stadnik, D.

D. Stadnik and A. Dybko, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 128, 523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talavera, D.

J. J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, Electron. Lett. 40, 106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veilleux, C.

Villatoro, J. J.

J. J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, Electron. Lett. 40, 106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Widmer, H. M.

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, Sens. Actuators B 31, 244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. N.

Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) (1)

D. Stadnik and A. Dybko, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 128, 523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. (1)

Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 37, 550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Talavera, Electron. Lett. 40, 106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashkom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

S. R. Quake and A. Sherer, Science 290, 1536 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, Sens. Actuators B 31, 244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Weast, M. Astle, and W. Beyer, eds., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1987), p. D-232.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic side view of the sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated optical mode-field diameter at the taper waist as a function of the waist diameter for a taper in 1, PDMS and 2, air. The effect of the fiber core at the waist is assumed to be negligible.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured optical transmission versus refractive index of the liquid in the channel for two sensors with different taper thicknesses at the waist: 1, 1.6 μ m ; 2, 700 nm . Circles, data points; arrow, refractive index of the surrounding polymer.

Metrics