Abstract

Transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal through a fiber network via a mode-locked fiber laser is demonstrated. With active cancellation of the fiber-transmission noise, the fractional instability for transfer of a radio-frequency signal through a 6.9- (4.5-)km round-trip installed (laboratory-based) fiber network is below 9(7)×1015τ12 for an averaging time τ1s, limited by the noise floor of the frequency-counting system. The noise cancellation reduces the rms timing jitter, integrated over a bandwidth from 1Hz to 100kHz, to 37 (20)fs for the installed (laboratory-based) fiber network, representing what is to our knowledge the lowest reported jitter for transfer of a timing signal over kilometer-scale distances using an installed (laboratory-based) optical-fiber network.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. G. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/lcls.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. http://www.branfiber.net.
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    [CrossRef]
  10. L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1989 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1989), p. 202.
  11. T. P. Celano, S. R. Stein, G. A. Gifford, B. A. Mesander, and B. J. Ramsey, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 510.

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. G. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abgrall, M.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

AlBanna, S.

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2004), p. 201.

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calonico, D.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Celano, T. P.

T. P. Celano, S. R. Stein, G. A. Gifford, B. A. Mesander, and B. J. Ramsey, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 510.

Clairon, A.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Addario, L.

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2004), p. 201.

Diddams, S. A.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dos Santos, F. P.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gifford, G. A.

T. P. Celano, S. R. Stein, G. A. Gifford, B. A. Mesander, and B. J. Ramsey, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 510.

Grunert, J.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holman, K. W.

Hudson, D. D.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

Karshenboim, S. G.

S. G. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, Ph.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemonde, P.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. T.

L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1989 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1989), p. 202.

Lutes, G. F.

L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1989 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1989), p. 202.

Ma, L. S.

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maksimovic, I.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandache, C.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marion, H.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mesander, B. A.

T. P. Celano, S. R. Stein, G. A. Gifford, B. A. Mesander, and B. J. Ramsey, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 510.

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Primas, L. E.

L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1989 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1989), p. 202.

Ramsey, B. J.

T. P. Celano, S. R. Stein, G. A. Gifford, B. A. Mesander, and B. J. Ramsey, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 510.

Salomon, C.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shillue, B.

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2004), p. 201.

Sortais, Y.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stein, S. R.

T. P. Celano, S. R. Stein, G. A. Gifford, B. A. Mesander, and B. J. Ramsey, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 510.

Udem, T.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Zhang, S.

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. G. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Marion, F. P. Dos Santos, M. Abgrall, S. Zhang, Y. Sortais, S. Bize, I. Maksimovic, D. Calonico, J. Grunert, C. Mandache, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

http://www.branfiber.net.

http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/lcls.

B. Shillue, S. AlBanna, and L. D’Addario, in 2004 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2004), p. 201.

L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, and G. F. Lutes, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1989 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1989), p. 202.

T. P. Celano, S. R. Stein, G. A. Gifford, B. A. Mesander, and B. J. Ramsey, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 510.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the setup for detecting and stabilizing jitter introduced during the transfer of fiber-laser pulses. The fiber-transmission link is either the BRAN preceded by the DCF or the DSF. The signals from the upper pair of detectors are set in quadrature with the phase shifter and mixed to determine the phase noise of the transfer. The phase error is fed to the adjustable delay line for noise cancellation. The lower set of detectors is used for out-of-loop determination of the frequency instability of the transfer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Allan deviation for transfer of the 8th harmonic ( 774 MHz ) of the laser repetition frequency over the BRAN and the DSF with and without stabilization. The measurement noise floor is determined by replacing the fiber link with 1 m of fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Jitter spectral density (left axis) and single-sideband phase noise (right axis) for transfer of the 81st harmonic ( 7.84 GHz ) of a laser repetition frequency through the BRAN. Also shown are jitter spectra for the measurement system, revealing that the dominant phase-noise contribution is from the rf amplifiers. (b) Integrated rms jitter for transfer through the BRAN, transfer over the DSF, and measurement noise floor with and without reduction of the amplification.

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