We analyze an optical three-port reflection grating by means of a scattering matrix formalism. Amplitude and phase relations among the three ports, i.e., the three orders of diffraction, are derived. Such a grating can be used as an all-reflective, low-loss coupler to Fabry–Perot cavities. We derive the input–output relations of a three-port grating coupled cavity and find distinct properties that are not present in two-port coupled cavities. The cavity relations further reveal that the three-port coupler can be designed such that the additional cavity port interferes destructively. In this case the all-reflective, low-loss, single-end Fabry–Perot cavity becomes equivalent to a standard transmissive, two-port coupled cavity.
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