Abstract

We introduce Hilbert phase microscopy (HPM) as a novel optical technique for measuring high transverse resolution quantitative phase images associated with optically transparent objects. Because of its single-shot nature, HPM is suitable for investigating rapid phenomena that take place in transparent structures such as biological cells. The potential of this technique for studying biological systems is demonstrated with measurements of red blood cells, and its ability to quantify dynamic processes on a millisecond scale is exemplified with measurements of evaporating micrometer-sized water droplets.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, Science 300, 82 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. H. Smith, Research (London) 8, 385 (1955).
  4. C. Yang, A. Wax, M. S. Hahn, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 26, 1271 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, 2nd ed., J. Celis, ed. (Academic, San Diego, 1997), Calif., pp. 44–53.
  6. D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 29, 2503 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Miao, O. Vanderline, M. Stewart, and T. M. Roberts, Science 300, 1405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K Gimzewski, Science 305, 1147 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Gabor, J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 329 (1946).
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999), p. 557.
  13. G. Popescu and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183902 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Creath, Prog. Opt. 26, 349 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Inverted Hibert phase microscopy for nanoscale investigation of erythrocyte structure and dynamics.”

2004 (3)

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 29, 2503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K Gimzewski, Science 305, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

L. Miao, O. Vanderline, M. Stewart, and T. M. Roberts, Science 300, 1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, Science 300, 82 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

G. Popescu and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Creath, Prog. Opt. 26, 349 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1955 (2)

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. H. Smith, Research (London) 8, 385 (1955).

1946 (1)

D. Gabor, J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 329 (1946).

Allan, V. J.

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, Science 300, 82 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 29, 2503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, A. Wax, M. S. Hahn, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 26, 1271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Inverted Hibert phase microscopy for nanoscale investigation of erythrocyte structure and dynamics.”

Blanchard-Desce, M.

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999), p. 557.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, Prog. Opt. 26, 349 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 29, 2503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, A. Wax, M. S. Hahn, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 26, 1271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Inverted Hibert phase microscopy for nanoscale investigation of erythrocyte structure and dynamics.”

Deflores, L. P.

Dogariu, A.

G. Popescu and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dombeck, D. A.

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, G. A.

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, 2nd ed., J. Celis, ed. (Academic, San Diego, 1997), Calif., pp. 44–53.

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 29, 2503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, A. Wax, M. S. Hahn, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 26, 1271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Inverted Hibert phase microscopy for nanoscale investigation of erythrocyte structure and dynamics.”

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 329 (1946).

Gimzewski, J. K

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K Gimzewski, Science 305, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gralla, E. B.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K Gimzewski, Science 305, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, M. S.

Ikeda, T.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Inverted Hibert phase microscopy for nanoscale investigation of erythrocyte structure and dynamics.”

Ina, H.

Iwai, H.

Kobayashi, S.

Miao, L.

L. Miao, O. Vanderline, M. Stewart, and T. M. Roberts, Science 300, 1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D.

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelling, A. E.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K Gimzewski, Science 305, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 29, 2503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Inverted Hibert phase microscopy for nanoscale investigation of erythrocyte structure and dynamics.”

Roberts, T. M.

L. Miao, O. Vanderline, M. Stewart, and T. M. Roberts, Science 300, 1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sehati, S.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K Gimzewski, Science 305, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, F. H.

F. H. Smith, Research (London) 8, 385 (1955).

Stephens, D. J.

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, Science 300, 82 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, M.

L. Miao, O. Vanderline, M. Stewart, and T. M. Roberts, Science 300, 1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Valentine, J. S.

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K Gimzewski, Science 305, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanderline, O.

L. Miao, O. Vanderline, M. Stewart, and T. M. Roberts, Science 300, 1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. C.

Wax, A.

Webb, W. W.

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999), p. 557.

Yang, C.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zicha, D.

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, 2nd ed., J. Celis, ed. (Academic, San Diego, 1997), Calif., pp. 44–53.

J. Inst. Electr. Eng. (1)

D. Gabor, J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 329 (1946).

J. Neurosci. (1)

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

K. Creath, Prog. Opt. 26, 349 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Research (London) (1)

F. H. Smith, Research (London) 8, 385 (1955).

Science (4)

L. Miao, O. Vanderline, M. Stewart, and T. M. Roberts, Science 300, 1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Pelling, S. Sehati, E. B. Gralla, J. S. Valentine, and J. K Gimzewski, Science 305, 1147 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, Science 300, 82 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, 2nd ed., J. Celis, ed. (Academic, San Diego, 1997), Calif., pp. 44–53.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Inverted Hibert phase microscopy for nanoscale investigation of erythrocyte structure and dynamics.”

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999), p. 557.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission intensity image; (b), (c), (d) interferogram, sinusoidal signal, and wrapped phase, respectively, measured from the rectangular area indicated in (a). (e) Full-field unwrapped phase, (f) full-field quantitative phase image, (g) transverse profile through the phase image in f with the continuous line indicating the theoretical fit. (h) HPM image of a whole blood smear (magnification, 40 × ) ; a 5 - μ m scale bar is shown. The gray-scale bars indicate intensity levels for (a)–(c) and the phase in radians for (d)–(h).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) HPM image of water droplets. The gray-scale bar indicates thickness in micrometers, and the scale bar shows 10 μ m . (b) Path-length fluctuations of point O of (a); the standard deviation is indicated. (c) Temporal evolution of the droplet mass (femtogram units) during evaporation. (d) Maximum thickness of droplets during evaporation. The data were collected over a 3.4-s time interval, with 10.3 ms between successive frames.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( x ) = I R + I S ( x ) + 2 [ I R I S ( x ) ] 1 2 cos [ q x + ϕ ( x ) ] ,
z ( x ) = 1 2 u ( x ) + i P 2 π u ( x ) x x d x .

Metrics