Abstract

We propose a simple and flexible multiwavelength Raman fiber laser based on phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a tunable chirped FBG. Using a simple multiwavelength Raman laser configuration with a single phase-shifted FBG and a tunable chirped FBG, we readily achieved simultaneous two-channel sensing probes with a high extinction ratio of more than 50dB over a 50-km distance. The multiwavelength output was stable and the peak fluctuation was less than 0.5dB. The temperature and strain sensitivities are estimated to be 10.1pm°C and 7.5pmμstrain, respectively.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, Jin U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Express 11, 476 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Bjerkan, Appl. Opt. 39, 554 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Nakajima, Y. Shindo, and T. Yoshikawa, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEICE, Nara, Japan, 2003), pp. 530–533.
  5. P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 575 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Lee, Y. G. Han, Y. M. Chang, and S. B. Lee, Electron. Lett. 40, 1106 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Yamashita, T. Baba, and K. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 285–288.
  8. J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, Electron. Lett. 32, 581 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 282 (2000).

2004 (4)

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 575 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Y. G. Han, Y. M. Chang, and S. B. Lee, Electron. Lett. 40, 1106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

L. Bjerkan, Appl. Opt. 39, 554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 282 (2000).

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, Electron. Lett. 32, 581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Augousti, A. T.

J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

S. Yamashita, T. Baba, and K. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 285–288.

Bae, J.

J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bakhti, F.

F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, Electron. Lett. 32, 581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bjerkan, L.

Chang, Y. M.

J. H. Lee, Y. G. Han, Y. M. Chang, and S. B. Lee, Electron. Lett. 40, 1106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 575 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

J. H. Lee, Y. G. Han, Y. M. Chang, and S. B. Lee, Electron. Lett. 40, 1106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, Jin U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Express 11, 476 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 282 (2000).

Jeong, J. M.

J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Jin U.

Kashiwagi, K.

S. Yamashita, T. Baba, and K. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 285–288.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, Y. G. Han, Y. M. Chang, and S. B. Lee, Electron. Lett. 40, 1106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

J. H. Lee, Y. G. Han, Y. M. Chang, and S. B. Lee, Electron. Lett. 40, 1106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, Jin U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Express 11, 476 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandal, J.

J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, Y.

Y. Nakajima, Y. Shindo, and T. Yoshikawa, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEICE, Nara, Japan, 2003), pp. 530–533.

Paek, U. C.

Pal, S.

J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, P.-C.

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 575 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, P.

F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, Electron. Lett. 32, 581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shindo, Y.

Y. Nakajima, Y. Shindo, and T. Yoshikawa, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEICE, Nara, Japan, 2003), pp. 530–533.

Sun, T.

J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, H.-Y.

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 575 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wade, S. A.

J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita, T. Baba, and K. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 285–288.

Yoshikawa, T.

Y. Nakajima, Y. Shindo, and T. Yoshikawa, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEICE, Nara, Japan, 2003), pp. 530–533.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. H. Lee, Y. G. Han, Y. M. Chang, and S. B. Lee, Electron. Lett. 40, 1106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Bakhti and P. Sansonetti, Electron. Lett. 32, 581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 575 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mandal, S. Pal, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, A. T. Augousti, and S. A. Wade, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Bae, Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 282 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

Y. Nakajima, Y. Shindo, and T. Yoshikawa, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEICE, Nara, Japan, 2003), pp. 530–533.

S. Yamashita, T. Baba, and K. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 285–288.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for a multiwavelength Raman fiber laser based on a multiple phase-shifted FBG for a long-distance remote-sensor system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured reflection spectra of (a) a single phase-shifted FBG and (b) a tunable chirped FBG. (c) Measured Raman gain profile for the 50 - km SMF used in this experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured output spectrum of the multiwavelength Raman laser with a single phase-shifted FBG. The difference in the peaks of the two channels was less than 0.2 dB .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Repeatedly scanned output spectra of the multiwavelength Raman laser. The peak fluctuation was less than 0.5 dB .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shift in lasing wavelength as a function of applied temperature. The temperature sensitivities of two lasing wavelengths were the same, 10.1 pm ° C . Inset, optical spectra of two Raman laser outputs following temperature changes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Shift in lasing wavelength as a function of applied strain. The strain sensitivities of two lasing wavelengths were the same, 7.5 pm μ strain .

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