Abstract

We investigate noncollinear sum-frequency generation in a time-resolved fluorescence upconversion experiment to eliminate group-velocity mismatch (GVM), a major mechanism that deteriorates time resolution. The noncollinear geometry inherently causes phase-front mismatch (PFM) that also spoils time resolution. The effects of GVM and PFM on the time resolution are studied by numerical calculations and experiments. Based on the investigation, a fluorescence upconversion apparatus with time resolution better than 45 fs (FWHM) is demonstrated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, Nature 369, 471 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).
  3. S. Shim, T. Joo, S.-C. Bae, K. S. Kim, and E. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8106 (2003).
  4. H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsh, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Shah, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Takeuchi and T. Tahara, Opt. Lett. 29, 313 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Duguay and J. M. Hansen, Opt. Commun. 1, 254 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 76, 809 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 117, 295 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 76, 809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).

S. Shim, T. Joo, S.-C. Bae, K. S. Kim, and E. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8106 (2003).

1995 (1)

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 117, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, Nature 369, 471 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Shah, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsh, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. A. Duguay and J. M. Hansen, Opt. Commun. 1, 254 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.-C.

S. Shim, T. Joo, S.-C. Bae, K. S. Kim, and E. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8106 (2003).

Band, Y. B.

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 117, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).

Diels, J.-C.

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay and J. M. Hansen, Opt. Commun. 1, 254 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, G. R.

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, Nature 369, 471 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gilch, P.

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 76, 809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. M.

M. A. Duguay and J. M. Hansen, Opt. Commun. 1, 254 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hirsh, M. D.

H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsh, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, D. H.

M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).

Jimenez, R.

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, Nature 369, 471 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joo, T.

M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).

S. Shim, T. Joo, S.-C. Bae, K. S. Kim, and E. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8106 (2003).

Kim, D.

M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).

Kim, E.

S. Shim, T. Joo, S.-C. Bae, K. S. Kim, and E. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8106 (2003).

Kim, K. S.

S. Shim, T. Joo, S.-C. Bae, K. S. Kim, and E. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8106 (2003).

Krasinski, J. S.

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 117, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P. V.

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, Nature 369, 471 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laimgruber, S.

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 76, 809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahr, H.

H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsh, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Maroncelli, M.

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, Nature 369, 471 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, G. W.

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 117, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Radzewicz, C.

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 117, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, H.

M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).

Rudolph, W.

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 76, 809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

J. Shah, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shim, S.

S. Shim, T. Joo, S.-C. Bae, K. S. Kim, and E. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8106 (2003).

Tahara, T.

Takeuchi, S.

Yoon, M.-C.

M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).

Zinth, W.

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 76, 809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 76, 809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Shah, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M.-C. Yoon, D. H. Jeong, S. Cho, D. Kim, H. Rhee, and T. Joo, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 164 (2003).

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

S. Shim, T. Joo, S.-C. Bae, K. S. Kim, and E. Kim, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8106 (2003).

Nature (1)

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, Nature 369, 471 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 117, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsh, Opt. Commun. 13, 96 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay and J. M. Hansen, Opt. Commun. 1, 254 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Nonlinear phase-matching scheme in a fluorescence upconversion experiment. kf, kg, and ks are wave vectors of the fluorescence, gate, and sum frequencies, respectively, and vfvg is the group velocity. θ is the phase-matching angle, and ψ1+ψ2 is the internal angle between the fluorescence and the gate. (b) Illustration of the PFM in noncollinear geometry. d is the beam diameter. Time uncertainty caused by PFM is indicated by Δt. (c) Illustration of the pulse overlap situation leading to expressions (1)–(3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Width of the cross correlations considering the effects of GVM and PFM in noncollinear SFG. Calculations including only the GVM (dashed curve) or the PFM (dotted curve) are also indicated. The calculation was done for type I BBO with different crystal lengths: (a) L=20, (b) 100, and (c) 580 µm. The filled squares indicate experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TRF of Coumarin 47 dissolved in methanol. A three-exponential fit is superimposed on the data. Note that the initial rise is not limited by the instrument response. Inset, Fourier power spectrum of the residual, which shows a 509cm-1 vibrational mode in the excited state.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Isτd-dt-dxL/2L/2dyIpx,y,tIgx,y,t-τd,
Ipexp-2ω02x cos α-y sin α2×exp-4 ln 2vpτp2y cos α+x sin α-vpt2,
Igexp-2ω02x cos α+y sin α2×exp-4 ln 2vgτg2y cos α-x sin α-vgt-τd2.

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