Abstract

We have demonstrated the decay of spontaneous emission (SE) from AlN–GaN quantum dots (QDs) into silver surface plasmon (SP) modes in the ultraviolet at approximately 375–380 nm. Using time-resolved photoluminescence (PL), we show that the electron–hole recombination rate in AlN–GaN QDs is enhanced when SE is resonantly coupled to a metal SP mode, corresponding to the dip in the continuous-wave PL spectrum. Exciton recombination by means of silver SP modes is as much as 3–7 times faster than in normal QD SE and depends strongly on emission wavelength and thickness of the silver.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Ohtsu, Proc. SPIE 4416, 1 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Borditsky, R. Vrijen, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Bhat, and E. Yablanovich, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2096 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Kawazoe and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2957 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. Everitt, and E. Yablanovich, Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. H. Drexhage, Progress in Optics XII, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974), Vol. 12, p. 163.
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Xiao, J.-Y. Zhang, and X.-Y. Wang, presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, San Francisco, Calif., May 16–21, 2004.
  11. I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. E. Hecker, R. A. Hopfel, N. Sawaki, T. Maier, and G. Strasser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1577 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Morkoc, A. Neogi, and M. Kuball, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 749, T6.5.1/N8.5.1/Z6.5.1 (2004).
  14. A. Neogi, H. O. Everitt, and H. Morkoc, “Size dependence of carrier recombination efficiency in GaN quantum dots,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (to be published).
  15. F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Morkoc, A. Neogi, and M. Kuball, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 749, T6.5.1/N8.5.1/Z6.5.1 (2004).

2003 (1)

T. Kawazoe and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2957 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. Everitt, and E. Yablanovich, Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Ohtsu, Proc. SPIE 4416, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Borditsky, R. Vrijen, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Bhat, and E. Yablanovich, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Hecker, R. A. Hopfel, N. Sawaki, T. Maier, and G. Strasser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1577 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

Borditsky, M.

Boroditsky, M.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coccioli, R.

Costard, E.

J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daudin, B.

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, Progress in Optics XII, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974), Vol. 12, p. 163.
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. Everitt, and E. Yablanovich, Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

A. Neogi, H. O. Everitt, and H. Morkoc, “Size dependence of carrier recombination efficiency in GaN quantum dots,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

Fishman, G.

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fulliet, G.

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gayral, B.

J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, J.

J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gontijo, I.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecker, H. E.

H. E. Hecker, R. A. Hopfel, N. Sawaki, T. Maier, and G. Strasser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1577 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hopfel, R. A.

H. E. Hecker, R. A. Hopfel, N. Sawaki, T. Maier, and G. Strasser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1577 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, T.

T. Kawazoe and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2957 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Kuball, M.

H. Morkoc, A. Neogi, and M. Kuball, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 749, T6.5.1/N8.5.1/Z6.5.1 (2004).

Lee, C. W.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. Everitt, and E. Yablanovich, Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, B.

J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, T.

H. E. Hecker, R. A. Hopfel, N. Sawaki, T. Maier, and G. Strasser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1577 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, U. K.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

H. Morkoc, A. Neogi, and M. Kuball, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 749, T6.5.1/N8.5.1/Z6.5.1 (2004).

A. Neogi, H. O. Everitt, and H. Morkoc, “Size dependence of carrier recombination efficiency in GaN quantum dots,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

Neogi, A.

H. Morkoc, A. Neogi, and M. Kuball, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 749, T6.5.1/N8.5.1/Z6.5.1 (2004).

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. Everitt, and E. Yablanovich, Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Neogi, H. O. Everitt, and H. Morkoc, “Size dependence of carrier recombination efficiency in GaN quantum dots,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

Ohtsu, M.

T. Kawazoe and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2957 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, Proc. SPIE 4416, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pelekanos, N. T.

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Rouviere, J. L.

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, N.

H. E. Hecker, R. A. Hopfel, N. Sawaki, T. Maier, and G. Strasser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1577 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sermage, B.

J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

H. E. Hecker, R. A. Hopfel, N. Sawaki, T. Maier, and G. Strasser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1577 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tierry-Mieg, V.

J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vrijen, R.

Wang, X.-Y.

M. Xiao, J.-Y. Zhang, and X.-Y. Wang, presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, San Francisco, Calif., May 16–21, 2004.

Widmann, F.

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, J.-Y. Zhang, and X.-Y. Wang, presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, San Francisco, Calif., May 16–21, 2004.

Yablanovich, E.

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.-Y.

M. Xiao, J.-Y. Zhang, and X.-Y. Wang, presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, San Francisco, Calif., May 16–21, 2004.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Kawazoe and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2957 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Hecker, R. A. Hopfel, N. Sawaki, T. Maier, and G. Strasser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1577 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

H. Morkoc, A. Neogi, and M. Kuball, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 749, T6.5.1/N8.5.1/Z6.5.1 (2004).

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. Everitt, and E. Yablanovich, Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Widmann, J. Simon, B. Daudin, G. Fulliet, J. L. Rouviere, N. T. Pelekanos, and G. Fishman, Phys. Rev. B 58, R15989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Gerard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Tierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Ohtsu, Proc. SPIE 4416, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

K. H. Drexhage, Progress in Optics XII, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974), Vol. 12, p. 163.
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, J.-Y. Zhang, and X.-Y. Wang, presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, San Francisco, Calif., May 16–21, 2004.

A. Neogi, H. O. Everitt, and H. Morkoc, “Size dependence of carrier recombination efficiency in GaN quantum dots,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the Ag GaN QD material system for the enhancement of the SE rate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized PL spectra from GaN QDs and Ag-covered GaN QDs: quenching of PL intensity in Ag-film-covered GaN QDs owing to resonant SP coupling. The PLE spectrum of GaN QDs is also shown. T=300 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of PL decay characteristics from GaN QDs and Ag-coated GaN QDs (a) at bulk GaN emission energy (3.43 eV) and (b) at QD PL peak emission energy (3.3 eV).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SP-induced change in the exciton recombination rate related to the dip in spectral luminescence plotted as Purcell enhancement factor Fpω for radiation into SP modes rather than into external electromagnetic waves.

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