Abstract

The field-free alignment of CO2 produced in response to the excitation of a molecule by a high-intensity femtosecond pump pulse is measured with a simple coronography-like technique. The technique is based on the defocusing of a time-delayed probe pulse produced by the spatial distribution of aligned molecules. In the intensity regime explored here, the technique is shown to give valuable information about dynamic alignment. With the help of simulations, the degree of alignment is extracted from the data.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).
  3. F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Peronne, M. D. Poulsen, C. Z. Bisgaard, H. Stapelfeldt, and T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043003 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2487 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, S. R. Leone, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033001 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. Lalanne, A. Ducasse, and S. Kielich, Laser–Molecular Interaction:?Laser Physics and Molecular Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).
  15. J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).
  16. T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4971 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Minemoto, H. Tanji, and H. Sakai, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 7737 (2003).

2004 (1)

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Peronne, M. D. Poulsen, C. Z. Bisgaard, H. Stapelfeldt, and T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Minemoto, H. Tanji, and H. Sakai, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 7737 (2003).

2002 (1)

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, S. R. Leone, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).

T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Goutev, A. Dreischuh, S. Baluschev, and S. Dinev, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

1990 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2487 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G. P.

Baluschev, S.

N. Goutev, A. Dreischuh, S. Baluschev, and S. Dinev, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, S. R. Leone, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bisgaard, C. Z.

E. Peronne, M. D. Poulsen, C. Z. Bisgaard, H. Stapelfeldt, and T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Corkum, P. B.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de-Araujo, C. B.

J. M. Hickmann, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de-Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3547 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diels, J. C.

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

Dinev, S.

N. Goutev, A. Dreischuh, S. Baluschev, and S. Dinev, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, P. W.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dreischuh, A.

N. Goutev, A. Dreischuh, S. Baluschev, and S. Dinev, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ducasse, A.

J. R. Lalanne, A. Ducasse, and S. Kielich, Laser–Molecular Interaction:?Laser Physics and Molecular Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Faucher, O.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

J. M. Hickmann, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de-Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3547 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goutev, N.

N. Goutev, A. Dreischuh, S. Baluschev, and S. Dinev, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guerin, S.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guérin, S.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hald, K.

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).

Hickmann, J. M.

J. M. Hickmann, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de-Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3547 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilligsoe, K. M.

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).

Jauslin, H. R.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, S. R. Leone, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

Kielich, S.

J. R. Lalanne, A. Ducasse, and S. Kielich, Laser–Molecular Interaction:?Laser Physics and Molecular Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Lalanne, J. R.

J. R. Lalanne, A. Ducasse, and S. Kielich, Laser–Molecular Interaction:?Laser Physics and Molecular Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Larsen, J. J.

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).

Lavorel, B.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. F.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, S. R. Leone, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maki, J. J.

Minemoto, S.

S. Minemoto, H. Tanji, and H. Sakai, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 7737 (2003).

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, S. R. Leone, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pashayan, Y. T.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peronne, E.

E. Peronne, M. D. Poulsen, C. Z. Bisgaard, H. Stapelfeldt, and T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, M. D.

E. Peronne, M. D. Poulsen, C. Z. Bisgaard, H. Stapelfeldt, and T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Renard, M.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Renard, V.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosca-Pruna, F.

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rouzée, A.

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

Safvan, C. P.

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).

Sakai, H.

S. Minemoto, H. Tanji, and H. Sakai, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 7737 (2003).

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).

Seideman, T.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Peronne, M. D. Poulsen, C. Z. Bisgaard, H. Stapelfeldt, and T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheik, B. M.

Spanner, M.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stapelfeldt, H.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Peronne, M. D. Poulsen, C. Z. Bisgaard, H. Stapelfeldt, and T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).

Stentz, A. J.

Tanji, H.

S. Minemoto, H. Tanji, and H. Sakai, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 7737 (2003).

Van, S. E. W.

Villeneuve, D. M.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weinacht, T. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, S. R. Leone, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Goutev, A. Dreischuh, S. Baluschev, and S. Dinev, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2114 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

S. Minemoto, H. Tanji, and H. Sakai, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 7737 (2003).

H. Sakai, C. P. Safvan, J. J. Larsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, K. Hald, and H. Stapelfeldt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 10235 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

V. Renard, M. Renard, A. Rouzée, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 68, 23406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

E. Peronne, M. D. Poulsen, C. Z. Bisgaard, H. Stapelfeldt, and T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guerin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2487 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Hickmann, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de-Araujo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3547 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, S. R. Leone, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. R. Lalanne, A. Ducasse, and S. Kielich, Laser–Molecular Interaction:?Laser Physics and Molecular Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring cross defocusing of the probe beam. Lenses L1 and L2 have a focal length of f=300 mm. Lens L3 is used to focus the light onto a CCD camera or on a photomultiplier tube (PMT).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomultiplier signal recorded as a function of probe–pump time delay in CO2 at room temperature and a pressure of 2.4×104 Pa. The pump peak intensity is 22 TW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal (dotted curves) recorded as a function of the probe–pump time delay in CO2 at room temperature and a pressure of 2.4×104 Pa for pump peak intensities of (a) 22, (b) 36, and (c) 54 TW/cm2. The numerical simulation (solid curves) was performed with a pump and a probe pulse duration of 100 fs and peak intensities of (a) 20, (b) 28, and (c) 46 TW/cm2. The value of cos2 θ (dashed curves) extracted from the simulation is shown on the right-hand scale.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

fNL=n0w024dΔnt,
w2z=wL2z1+16d2ρ02Δn2n02w04,
SΔnR2=Kcos2 θ-1/32,

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