Abstract

Novel hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) probes with polymer cantilevers have been developed for clinical oral and skin imaging. An electroactive ionic polymer–metal composite cantilever was used to generate 3-mm transverse scanning movement of an optical fiber with applied 2-V linear alternating voltage at 1 Hz. Low driving voltage ensures safety. Two different optical designs achieve both forward and sidewise scanning and make it possible to image everywhere within the human oral cavity. In vivo OCT imaging of the human tongue is demonstrated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2001 (2)

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, Smart Mater. Struct. 10, 819 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Pan, H. Xie, and G. K. Fedder, Opt. Lett. 26, 1966 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, J. O. Simpson, and J. Smith, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, R15 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bar-Cohen, Y.

M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, J. O. Simpson, and J. Smith, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, R15 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Bar-Cohen, in Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles:?Reality, Potential, and Challenges, 2nd ed., Y. Bar-Cohen, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 2004), Chap. 1.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brenner, M.

Brezinski, M. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Cobb, M. J.

Fedder, G. K.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Opt. Lett. 22, 1618 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kim, K. J.

K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 65 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, Smart Mater. Struct. 10, 819 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kimmey, M. B.

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Mukai, D. S.

Pan, Y.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, K. D.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahinpoor, M.

K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 65 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, Smart Mater. Struct. 10, 819 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, J. O. Simpson, and J. Smith, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, R15 (1998).
[Crossref]

Simpson, J. O.

M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, J. O. Simpson, and J. Smith, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, R15 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, J.

M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, J. O. Simpson, and J. Smith, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, R15 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. W.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tran, P. H.

Xie, H.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zara, J. M.

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smart Mater. Struct. (3)

M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, J. O. Simpson, and J. Smith, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, R15 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, Smart Mater. Struct. 10, 819 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 65 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Y. Bar-Cohen, in Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles:?Reality, Potential, and Challenges, 2nd ed., Y. Bar-Cohen, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 2004), Chap. 1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the IPMC actuator and its mode of operation. (b) Photographs of an IPMC strip that shows large deformation (as much as 15 mm) in the presence of a voltage of ±2 V dc. (The 0.3-mm-thick IPMC was purchased from Environmental Robots, Inc., and cut into a 2 mm×30 mm strip.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of OCT probes incorporating the IPMC scanning cantilever: (a) forward scanning probe, (b) sidewise scanning probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Displacement of the fiber beam controlled by the IPMC scanning cantilever on a 2-V alternating waveform at 1 Hz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images obtained with OCT probes incorporating the IPMC scanning cantilever: (a) a clear plastic plate and (b) in vivo underside of a human tongue (A, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, B, basement membrane; C, salivary gland; D, lingual muscle fibers).

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