Abstract

We have developed a simple new technique for measuring absolute radiative quantum efficiencies of fluorescing ions in solids that can be applied to systems exhibiting concentration quenching of the fluorescence. The technique requires measurement of the photoacoustic signal and fluorescent lifetime as a function of ion concentration. Application of this method to the upper laser level of Nd3+ in ED2 glass yields a value for the quantum efficiency somewhat smaller than that found in previous estimates and measurements.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).
  2. M. L. Bhaumik, C. L. Talk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1211 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Van Vitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Gudmundsen, O. J. Marsh, E. Matovich, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 272 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  5. For a review, see Yoh-han Pao, Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection (Academic, New York, 1977).
  6. M. G. Rockley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 50, 427 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. G. Rockley, K. M. Waugh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 597 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Lahmann, H. L. Ludewig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 45, 177 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. L. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).
  10. J. F. McClelland, R. N. Kniseley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 467 (1976). Care was taken to ensure that we were, in fact, operating below saturation.
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. F. Krupke, J. Quantum Electron. 10, 450 (1974). 450 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Lifetime data were measured by R. A. Saroyan and M. J. Weber at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.
  14. E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, J. Quantum Electron. 11, 798 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blatte, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Brecher, L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 475 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Singh, K. G. Smith, L. G. Van Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. G. Rockley, K. M. Waugh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (3)

W. Lahmann, H. L. Ludewig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 45, 177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. Brecher, L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Rockley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 50, 427 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (4)

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

J. F. McClelland, R. N. Kniseley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 467 (1976). Care was taken to ensure that we were, in fact, operating below saturation.
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, J. Quantum Electron. 11, 798 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

W. F. Krupke, J. Quantum Electron. 10, 450 (1974). 450 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Van Vitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Singh, K. G. Smith, L. G. Van Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blatte, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. L. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

R. A. Gudmundsen, O. J. Marsh, E. Matovich, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 272 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Artamonova, M. V.

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. L. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

Bhaumik, M. L.

Blatte, M.

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blatte, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Brecher, C.

C. Brecher, L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Briskina, Ch. M.

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. L. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

Burshtein, A. L.

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. L. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

Danielmeyer, H. G.

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blatte, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

Gersho, A.

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gudmundsen, R. A.

R. A. Gudmundsen, O. J. Marsh, E. Matovich, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 272 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Karasik, A. Ya.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kniseley, R. N.

J. F. McClelland, R. N. Kniseley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 467 (1976). Care was taken to ensure that we were, in fact, operating below saturation.
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, J. Quantum Electron. 10, 450 (1974). 450 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kut’enkov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lahmann, W.

W. Lahmann, H. L. Ludewig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 45, 177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Layne, C. B.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, J. Quantum Electron. 11, 798 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, J. Quantum Electron. 11, 798 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ludewig, H. L.

W. Lahmann, H. L. Ludewig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 45, 177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, O. J.

R. A. Gudmundsen, O. J. Marsh, E. Matovich, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 272 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Matovich, E.

R. A. Gudmundsen, O. J. Marsh, E. Matovich, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 272 (1963).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, J. F.

J. F. McClelland, R. N. Kniseley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 467 (1976). Care was taken to ensure that we were, in fact, operating below saturation.
[CrossRef]

Neustruev, V. B.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

Pao, Yoh-han

For a review, see Yoh-han Pao, Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection (Academic, New York, 1977).

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

Riseberg, L. A.

C. Brecher, L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rockley, M. G.

M. G. Rockley, K. M. Waugh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Rockley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 50, 427 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

S. Singh, K. G. Smith, L. G. Van Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Van Vitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Skleznev, A. G.

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. L. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

Smith, K. G.

S. Singh, K. G. Smith, L. G. Van Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Van Vitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Talk, C. L.

Van Uitert, L. G.

S. Singh, K. G. Smith, L. G. Van Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Van Vitert, L. G.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Van Vitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Waugh, K. M.

M. G. Rockley, K. M. Waugh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

C. Brecher, L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, J. Quantum Electron. 11, 798 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Zusman, L. D.

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. L. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

Appl. Phys. (1)

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blatte, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Brecher, L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 475 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. F. McClelland, R. N. Kniseley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 467 (1976). Care was taken to ensure that we were, in fact, operating below saturation.
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. G. Rockley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 50, 427 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Rockley, K. M. Waugh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. Lahmann, H. L. Ludewig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 45, 177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. A. Gudmundsen, O. J. Marsh, E. Matovich, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 272 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, J. Quantum Electron. 11, 798 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Krupke, J. Quantum Electron. 10, 450 (1974). 450 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Van Vitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Singh, K. G. Smith, L. G. Van Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. L. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

Other (2)

Lifetime data were measured by R. A. Saroyan and M. J. Weber at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

For a review, see Yoh-han Pao, Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection (Academic, New York, 1977).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Decay scheme of an Nd3+ ion in a solid, showing radiative transitions as solid lines, nonradiative transitions as curly lines, and cross relaxation as dotted lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of photoacoustic cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental plot of [PAS(N)/N] (in arbitrary units) versus r(N) = [τ(N)/τ(0)], showing the expected linear relationship. Excitation source was the 514.5-nm argon laser line. Data points correspond, from left to right, to sample concentrations of 6.0, 4.3, 3.0, 2.0, and 0.8 wt% Nd2O3 in ED2 glass.

Equations (5)

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P A S ( N ) = C β ( N ) η ( N ) ,
β ( N ) = N σ .
η ( N ) = 1 E 61 { E 65 + Q E ( N ) [ b 54 E 41 + b 53 E 31 + b 52 E 21 ] + P N R ( N ) E 51 + P x ( N ) E 51 } = 1 - 0.52 Q E ( N ) ,
τ ( N ) τ ( 0 ) = W R + W N R W R + W N R + W X ( N ) = Q E ( N ) Q E ( 0 ) r ( N ) .
P A S ( N ) = C σ N [ 1 - 0.52 Q E ( 0 ) r ( N ) ] .

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